boilers are tailored to meet the needs and constraints of widely varying industrial processes. The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) reports that the industrial boiler and process heater population (total and not just coal-fired units) consists of 42,000 and 15,000 units, respectively, ranging in size from 10,000 to 1,400,000 pounds of steam per hour with an average unit size of 100,000 pounds of steam per hour [9]. In comparison, there are about 4000 utility units, of which about 1250 boilers utilize conventional coal combustion technology (see Table 5-1), with an additional 67 utility-scale fluidized-bed boilers [10]. This is further illustrated in Figure 5-4, which shows the distribution of coal-fired boilers by capacity for conventional utility, conventional non-utility, fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) utility, and FBC non-utility boilers [10]. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines a non-utility boiler as a boiler whose primary product is not electricity but steam. Some of the non-utility boilers (both conventional and FBC) are cogeneration units in that they produce both steam and electricity.

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