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a All coverage for boilers >25 MW unless otherwise noted.

a All coverage for boilers >25 MW unless otherwise noted.

technologies to reduce the cost of compliance. If a utility properly installs and maintains the appropriate control equipment designed to meet the emission limitation established in the regulations but is still unable to meet the limitation, the NOx program allows the utility to apply for an alternative emission limitation (AEL), which corresponds to the level that the utility demonstrates is achievable. Phase I of the program, which was delayed a year due to litigation, began on January 1, 1996, and affected two types of boilers, which were among those already targeted for Phase I SO2 reductions: dry-bottom, wall-fired boilers and tangentially fired boilers. The regulations to govern the Phase II portion of the program, which began in 2000, were promulgated December 19, 1996. These regulations set lower emission limits for Group 1 boilers and established NOx limitations for Group 2 boilers which include boilers applying cell-burner technology, cyclone boilers, wet bottom boilers, and other types of coal-fired boilers. The NOZ limitations and number of units affected in 2001 are provided in Table 4-4 [19].

Title V: Permitting

The 1990 CAAAs introduced a national permitting program to ensure compliance with all applicable requirements of the Clean Air Act and to enhance the EPA's ability to enforce the Act [16]. Sources are required to submit applications for Title V operating permits through the state agencies to the EPA. Air pollution sources subject to the program must obtain an operating permit; states must develop and implement the program; and the EPA must issue permit program regulations, review each state's proposed program, and oversee the state's efforts to implement any approved program. The EPA must also develop and implement a federal permit program when a state fails to adopt and implement its own program.

The following sources are required to submit Title V permits:

• Major sources as determined under Title I—(1) >100 short tons per year and listed pollutants, excluding CO; and (2) >10 to 100 short tons year, or sources in nonattainment areas depending on the classification of marginal to extreme;

• All NSPSs, PSD review sources, and NESHAPs sources;

• Major sources as determined under Title III—(1) >10 short tons per year any air toxic, and (2) >25 short tons per year multiple air toxics;

• Sources under Title IV;

• Sources emitting >100 short tons per year of ozone depleting substances under Title VI;

• Other sources required to have state or federal operating permits.

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