10

aARGE: Arbeitsgermeinschaft Ruhrchemie-Lurgi. b Circulating entrained-flow reactor.

c1 standard atmosphere = 14.7 psia (pounds per square inch absolute). d(Cu) = about 5% copper.

Source: Van Krevelen, D. W., Coal: Typology-Physics-Chemistry-Constitution, Third edition, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1993. With permission.

aARGE: Arbeitsgermeinschaft Ruhrchemie-Lurgi. b Circulating entrained-flow reactor.

c1 standard atmosphere = 14.7 psia (pounds per square inch absolute). d(Cu) = about 5% copper.

Source: Van Krevelen, D. W., Coal: Typology-Physics-Chemistry-Constitution, Third edition, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1993. With permission.

Iso-synthesis is a reaction that converts carbon monoxide and hydrogen to branched-chain hydrocarbons and is usually conducted at 750 to 930°F and 100 to 1000 atm over thoria or K2CÜ3-promoted thoria-alumina catalysts and yields predominately low-molecular-weight (C4 and C5) isoparaffins [19]. Iso-synthesis at temperatures much above 750°F promotes coproduction of aromatics, while oxygenated compounds are formed at temperatures below 750°F. The synthol process is used for the production of oxygenated compounds. In this process, the feed gas is reacted at 750 to 840°F and ~140 atm over an alkalized iron catalyst [19]. Synol synthesis involves the interaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at 355 to 390°F and 5 to 50 atm in the presence of highly reduced ammonia catalysts to produce a product with 40 to 50% oxygenated straight-chain compounds. Oxyl synthesis is carried out at 355 to 390°F and 20 to 50 atm over a precipitated iron catalyst to produce a product with over 30% oxygenated straight-chain compounds. The oxo-synthesis process is used for producing aldehydes and occurs with the reaction between an olefin and syngas at 210 to 390° F and 100 to 500 atm over cobalt carbonyl catalysts. The oxo-synthesis process has become the most common industrial method for producing C3 to C16 aldehydes.

0 0

Post a comment