Info

Approximate Range of Coal Sulfur Content ( ) Source U.S. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Coal Reserves 1997 Update, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., February 1999. Source U.S. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Coal Reserves 1997 Update, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., February 1999....

Nh No N2o H 658

NOx Control in Pulverized Coal Combustion Technologies for control of NOZ emissions from pulverized coal-fired power plants can be divided into two groups (1) combustion modifications where the NOx production is reduced during the combustion process, and (2) flue gas treatment, which removes the NOx from flue gas following its formation. Sometimes the practice of injecting reducing agents to reduce NOx to molecular nitrogen (N2) is classified separately however, in this section it is included...

Brief History of Carbonization High Temperature

The carbonization of coal has its historical roots in the iron and steel industry. The ironmaking processes developed around the Mediterranean Sea and spread northward through Europe 33 . The Phoenicians, Celts, and Romans all helped spread ironmaking technology, and the Romans brought one of the ironmaking techniques as far north as Great Britain. Originally, charcoal produced from wood was the fuel used to melt the iron ore, and a tremendous amount of wood was needed for this industry. For...

Table A27

Emission Factors for SOx and NOx Compounds from Uncontrolled Anthracite Coal Combustorsa Emission Emission Emission Emission Stoker-fired FBC Pulverized coal aData from EPA, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42, Fifth ed., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., January 1995. Tons are short tons. Units are pounds of pollutant per ton of coal burned. To convert from lb ton to kg Mg, multiply by 0.5. bS weight percent sulfur for...

World Primary Energy Production

The world's output of primary energy totaled more than 403 quadrillion Btu in 2001. Petroleum (including both crude oil and natural gas plant liquids) continued to be the world's most important primary energy source, World Energy Consumption in 2001 (quadrillion Btu) World Energy Consumption in 2001 (quadrillion Btu)

400 1100 1800 2500 3200

Classification and characteristics of the commercial gasification systems. (From Elliot, M. A., Ed., Chemistry of Coal Utilization, Secondary Suppl. Vol., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981. With permission.) In a fixed-bed gasifier, 1 4- to 2-in. coal is supplied countercurrent to the gasifying medium. Coal moves slowly down (sometimes this type of gasifier is called a moving-bed gasifier), ideally in plug flow against an ascending stream of gasifying medium. Reaction zones,...

1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Energy overview of United States. (From EIA, Annual Energy Review 2001, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Washington, D.C., November 2002.) record level of 11 million barrels per day in 2000. This finding is disturbing, especially when compared to the U.S. petroleum imports in 1973, which totaled 6.3 million barrels per day. In October 1973, the Arab members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) embargoed the sale of oil to the...

Sulfur Dioxide

The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's (UNECE) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) was the first legally binding instrument to address air pollution on a broad regional context 49 . The Convention was adopted in 1979, came into force in 1983, and now has been ratified by 48 countries, as listed in Table 4-7 49,50 . Under the convention, the countries recognize the transboundary problems of air pollution and accept general responsibility to move toward a...

Trace Elements

All coals contain small concentrations of trace elements. Trace elements enter the atmosphere through natural processes, and sources of trace elements include soil, seawater, and volcanic eruptions. Human activities, such as power generation and industrial and commercial sectors, also lead to emissions of some elements. Although these elements are present in small concentrations in the coal (i.e., parts per million, ppm, by weight), the large amount of coal burned annually mobilizes tons of...

To

A Data from EPA, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42, Fifth ed., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., January 1995. Tons are short tons. To convert from lb ton to kg Mg, multiply by 0.5. Emission factors are pounds of pollutant per ton of coal combusted, as fired. ESP, electrostatic precipitator. Expressed as aerodynamic equivalent diameter. cA coal ash weight percent (wt. ) as fired for example, if coal ash weight is 8.2 ,...

Qny

Darby, Abraham - 32, 238 Darcy's equation - 359 DB Riley Inc. Riley Stoker Inc. - 200 Degasification systems - 81 Dense medium separation - 91 Deutsch-Anderson equation - 351 Diagentic - 2, 8 Dibasic acid - 302 Dibenz ah anthracene - 106 Dinitrogen pentoxide - 100 Direct impaction - 356 Direct interception - 357 Directive on Controlling Emissions Prevention and Control - 164 Directive on National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants - 168 Directive on the Limitation of Emissions...

Vision 21 Technologies

Vision 21 energy plants will utilize a modular design philosophy and will comprise technology modules selected and configured to produce the desired products from the feedstocks, which would include fossil fuels combined with opportunity feedstocks, such as biomass, when appropriate. The configuration of the complete plant, feedstocks, products, environmental controls, and plant size will be site specific and determined by prevailing market and economic conditions. The technology modules will...

The Potential of Coal to Reduce US Dependency on Imported Crude

Inexpensive crude oil contributes to the U.S. economic prosperity however, the increasing reliance upon imported crude oil makes the United States vulnerable to oil supply disruptions and threatens the nation's economic and energy security. As evidenced by the 1973 Arab oil embargo and the 1979 Iranian revolution, abrupt and prolonged losses of crude oil from the Persian Gulf region drastically affect the U.S. economy, increase unemployment, and boost inflation 23 . Even shorter periods of...

003

FlData from EPA, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42, Fifth ed., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., January 1995. Tons are short tons. To convert from lb ton to lcg Mg, multiply by 0.5. To convert from lb ton to lb MM Btu, multiply by 0.0625. ND, no data. S wt. sulfur content of lignite, wet basis for example, if the sulfur content equals 3.4 , then S 3.4. For high-sodium ash (Na20 > 8 ), use 22S. For low-sodium ash (Na20...

M

Dry-bottom furnace and burner configurations (a) horizontal (front or rear) (b) opposed horizontal (c) tangential (or corner firing) (d) opposed inclined (e) single U-flame (f) double U-flame. (From Elliot, M. A., Ed., Chemistry of Coal Utilization, Secondary Suppl. Vol., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981. With permission.) Flame temperatures in the pulverized coal-fired units are typically around 2750 F. Heat is lost primarily by radiation in the furnace to the waterwalls and...

I

Wellman-Lord process. (From Elliot, T. C., Ed., Standard Handbook of Powerplant Engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989. With permission.) same time. The overall regeneration reaction is 2NaHSO3(ag) + heat Na2SO3(s) + H2O(l) + SO2(conc.) (6-31) The concentrated SO2 stream that is produced may be compressed, liquefied, and oxidized to produce sulfuric acid or reduced to elemental sulfur. A small portion of collected SO2 oxidizes to the sulfate form and is converted in a crystallizer...

Overview of US Energy Security Issues

Energy security is a complex issue and, in the case of the United States, is ensured when the nation can deliver energy economically, reliably, in an environmentally sound way, and safely in quantities sufficient to support the growing economy and defense needs 3 . This will require policies that support expansion of the energy supply and delivery infrastructure (with sufficient storage and generating reserves), diversity of fuels, and redundancy of infrastructure to meet the demands of...

Air Contamination from Preparation Plants

Preparation of fine coal can cause air pollution if proper dust and gas removal equipment is not installed. The air effluent from a fine coal preparation plant consists of entrained dust, both coal and ash, and various gases, primarily consisting of products of coal combustion from thermal dryers 20 . Sources of particulates include thermal dryers, pneumatic coal-cleaning equipment, coal processing and conveying equipment, screening equipment, coal storage, coal transfer points, and coal...

Pyc

AData from EPA, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42, Fifth ed., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., January 1995. Tons are short tons. Factors were developed from emissions data from ten sites firing bituminous coal, eight sights firing subbituminous coal, and one site firing lignite. The emission factors are applicable to boilers using both wet limestone scrubbers or spray dryers and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or...

Synthetic Coal

Synthetic coal, or synfuel, plants have recently assumed a larger share of the industry picture. The birth of the synfuel industry resulted from the enactment of Section 29 of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986 14-18 . This legislation was enacted as a result of the upheaval in U.S. energy markets by the Arab oil embargo in 1973. Section 29 provides an income tax credit for fuels produced from nonconventional energy sources until 2007, when the credit is scheduled to end. In 2002, nearly 83...

Table 415

Estimated Emissions for Nine Priority HAPs from Characteristic Utility Units (1994 short tons per year)0 aThere are uncertainties in these numbers. Based on an uncertainty analysis, the EPA predicts that the emission estimates are generally within a factor of roughly three of actual emissions. These emission estimates were calculated using the toxic equivalency (TEQ) approach, which is based on the summation of the emissions of each congener after adjusting for toxicity relative to...

Nitrogen Oxides

Nitrogen oxide emission standards have been introduced or are becoming more stringent around the world due to increased concerns about the local, regional, and transboundary effects of NOx emissions. Generally, international legislation has been an important factor in developing national regulations in many parts of the world. Recognition of the transboundary effect of air pollution has led to a number of international agreements 50 . Those that pertain to NOz emissions include the UNECE LRTAP...

US Coal Exports and Imports

The U.S. coal export and import markets are relatively small (see Figure 2-10), and the export market has been on a decline for many years, as illustrated in Figure 2-19 12 . In 2002, the United States exported approximately 40 million short tons, which was nearly evenly divided between metallurgical coal and steam coal. Although this market has been declining, the EIA projects no further erosion in coal exports 12 . The United States has become only a marginal supplier in the international...

Clean Coal Power Initiative CCPI

The second follow-on program to the CCT Program is the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI), which was initiated by President Bush in 2002 and is an innovative technology demonstration program that fosters more efficient clean coal technologies for use in existing and new power generation facilities in the United States 6 . Candidate technologies are demonstrated at a significant scale to ensure proof-of-operation prior to widespread commercialization. Technologies emerging from this program will...

549

Energy Information Administration, U.S. Coal Reserves 1997 Update, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., February 1999. Source U.S. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Coal Reserves 1997 Update, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., February 1999. and Future Role of Coal), where coal...

E

AData from EPA, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-42, Fifth ed., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., January 1995. Tons are short tons. To convert from lb ton to kg Mg, multiply by 0.5. Emission factors are pounds of pollutant per ton of coal combusted as fired. ESP, electrostatic precipitator. k Expressed as aerodynamic equivalent diameter. cEstimated control efficiency for multiple cyclones is 80 . d Insufficient data.

165

Source EIA, International Energy Annual 2001, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Washington, D.C., 2003, pp. 114-115. Source EIA, International Energy Annual 2001, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Washington, D.C., 2003, pp. 114-115. United States Russia China India Australia Germany South Africa Ukraine Kazakhstan Poland FSU

50

A Short tons VOCs per year for ozone short tons CO per year for carbon monoxide. a Short tons VOCs per year for ozone short tons CO per year for carbon monoxide. 25 short tons per year are required to burn clean fuels or install advanced control technologies. The 1990 CAAAs also established similar programs for areas that do not meet federal health standards for carbon monoxide and PM10. Areas exceeding the standards for these pollutants are divided into moderate and serious classifications....

Pre Industrial Revolution

Documentation of air pollution begins as early as ancient Rome when the statesman Seneca complained about the stink, soot and heavy air in the city 1 . Coal usage increased in England during medieval times because coal became less expensive and wood became scarce, and air pollution problems intensified, particularly black smoke and fumes. It became so bad that in 1257 Queen Eleanor was driven from Nottingham Castle by the smoke and fumes rising from the city below 2 . In 1283 and 1288, there...

36

And Australia (255 million Btu person). Table 2-7 lists per capita energy consumption for the regions of the world along with selected countries. By region, the per capita energy consumption ranges from about 277 million Btu person for North America to 15 million Btu person for Africa. As expected, the per capita consumption is highest for the industrialized nations. China's use of 1.4 billion short tons made it the largest consumer of coal in 2001. The United States consumed 1.1 billion short...

The Resurgence of Coal in Electric Power Generation

Fuel diversity for power generation is necessary for energy security, which is recognized by both industry and lawmakers. Tom Ridge, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, was a supporter of energy security while serving as governor of Pennsylvania he led Pennsylvania toward competitive electricity markets and supported the development of new generating capacity in Pennsylvania with an emphasis on fuel diversity 27 . The first major coal plant to be built in Pennsylvania in 20...

C

Cadmium-96, 107, 109-110, 170 Calcium-96, 109 Calcium hydroxide - 296 Calcium sulfate - 299, 303, 311 Calcium sulfate dihydrate - 296, 298 Calcium sulfite - 95, 299, 303 Calcium sulfite hemihydrate - 296, 298 Carbon dioxide - 81-82, 97, 103, 114-117, 394 Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture - 337 Carbon dioxide capture control technologies Advanced conversion processes - 378 Amine absorption - 377 CO2 adsorption - 377 Fluor Daniel Econamine FG CO2 Recovery process - 377 Fuel switching - 376...

Post Industrial Revolution

Two major air pollution health episodes raised awareness of the effect of pollution on human health and were instrumental in passage of the English Clean Air Act in the United Kingdom in 1956 and the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1970 (although federal air pollution control acts began to be passed in 1955, as discussed later in this chapter) 3,4 . These episodes occurred in Donora, Pennsylvania, in 1948 and in London, England, in 1952 and illustrated the fact that people will largely...

H

Hadrian's Wall - 30 Halocarbons - 114-115 Halons - 115 Hard coal - 3, 22-25, 68 Hazardous air pollutants - 128, 144, 499-503 Health effects - 78, 84, 89, 99-100, 102, 106, 110, 118 Heavy oil - 240 Helmont, Jan van - 247 Herbaceous plants - 4 Hero of Alexandria - 196 Heterogeneous reaction - 207 Homogenous reaction - 207-208 Historic Preservation Act of 1966 - 89 Hoof-and-mouth disease - 463 Horizontal slot-type coke oven - 240 Human health - 77, 96, 104 Humic substances - 3 Hydrated calcium...

Greenhouse Gases Carbon Dioxide

The Earth naturally absorbs and reflects incoming solar radiation and emits longer wavelength terrestrial (thermal) radiation back into space 50 . On average, the absorbed solar radiation is balanced by the outgoing terrestrial radiation emitted to space (see Figure 3-2). A portion of this terrestrial radiation, though, is absorbed by gases in the atmosphere. These gases, known as greenhouse gases, have molecules that have the right size and shape to absorb and retain heat. These gases include...

CCT Program Funding and Costs

The five CCT Program solicitations resulted in the demonstration of 38 projects as of 2003. Several additional projects were started however, for a variety of reasons (primarily financial), these projects were terminated. In fact, two advanced power generation projects (i.e., City of Lakeland, Department of Water & City Utilities projects summarized in the next section as part of the portfolio of 38 projects) were active for approximately a decade but were terminated in the summer of 2003...

155

Nuclear-35, 54, 58, 65, 67, 69, 71-72 O Office of Surface Mining - 90 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) - 85, 94 Oil-61, 66-67, 72, 456 Oil prices - 445, 447 Oil reserves - 13 Opacity - 146 Organic compounds - 97, 105 Overburden - 77, 86, 88 Overburden blasting - 86 Oxidized mercury - 370, 373-374 Ozone standards - 130, 149 Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) -150 Ozone transport region (OTR) - 150 P 1999 Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication, and Ground-Level Ozone -...

45

A Radionuclides are the one priority HAP not included on this table because radionuclide emissions are measured in different units (i.e., curies per year) and, therefore, would not provide a relevant comparison to the other HAPs shown. fcThe emission estimates in this table are derived from model projections based on a limited sample of specific boiler types and control scenarios therefore, there are uncertainties in these numbers. cThese emission estimates were calculated using the toxic...

Program Importance

The strength and security of the U.S. economy are closely linked to the availability, reliability, and cost of electric power. Economic growth is linked to reliable and affordable electric power. Electricity requirements for the United States are steadily increasing, and coal will play a significant role in satisfying U.S. energy needs. CCPI will help meet these energy electricity demands by demonstrating new generation technologies 6 . CCPI will also enable effective use of existing facilities...

Toxecon

TOXECON configuration for mercury control in a coal-fired boiler. (From Eastman, M. L., Clean Coal Power Initiative, presented at the Clean Coal Power Conference, November 18, 2003.) electrical generation plants increasing the net generating capacity of units that burn high-moisture coal increasing the energy supply of units that burn high-moisture coal increasing the cost-effectiveness of the country's electrical generation industry improving the environment by reducing emissions...

Future Gen

On February 27, 2003, President Bush announced plans for the United States to build a prototype of the fossil fuel power plant of the future FutureGen. In a statement released by the president, he stated Today I am pleased to announce that the United States will sponsor a 1 billion, 10-year demonstration project to create the world's first coal-based zero-emissions electricity and hydrogen power plant. This project will be undertaken with international partners and power and advanced technology...

15 25 35 45

Annual mercury emissions in the United States. (From DOE, Quicksilver Don't Play With It, FETC Focus, Issue 2, March 1999, p 25.) Based on this, U.S. sources are estimated to have contributed about 3 of the 5500 tons in 1995. Mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers are estimated to be 48 short tons per year. In a report released by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) in February 2003, coal-fired power plants were identified as the largest single anthropogenic source of...

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 and Prevention of Significant Deterioration

By 1977, most areas of the country had still not attained the NAAQSs for at least one pollutant 4 . For those areas that had not attained a NAAQS (i.e., nonattainment areas), states were required to submit and have an approved state implementation plan (SIP) revision by July 1, 1979, that demonstrated how attainment would be achieved by December 31, 1982. This requirement was a precondition for the construction or modification of major emission sources in nonattainment areas after June 30,...

03

C Recycle oil hydrogenation. d Small scale. Source Adapted from van Krevelen 1 Miller 50 HTI 51 Elliot 2 . c Recycle oil hydrogenation. d Small scale. Source Adapted from van Krevelen 1 Miller 50 HTI 51 Elliot 2 . ratio than petroleum 0.7 to > 1.2. Direct liquefaction transforms coal into liquid hydrocarbons by directly adding hydrogen to the coal. Examples of some of the operating parameters of the primary processes are summarized in Table 5-11 1,50 . The Bergius process was put into...

8RuT n M

Where M is the molecular weight of the gas, T is temperature (K), and Ru is the universal gas constant (8.31 x 103 m2 sec2 mol K). The drift velocity is used to determine collection efficiency using the Deutsch-Anderson equation where w is the drift velocity, A is the area of collection electrodes, and Q is the volumetric flow rate. The units of w, A, and Q must be consistent because the factor wA Q is dimensionless. The ratio A Q is often referred to as the specific collection area (SCA) and...

Origin of Coal

Coal is found in deposits called seams that originated through the accumulation of vegetation that has undergone physical and chemical changes. These changes include decaying of the vegetation, deposition and burying by sedimentation, compaction, and transformation of the plant remains into the organic rock found today. Coals differ throughout the world in the kinds of plant materials deposited (type of coal), in the degree of metamorphism or coalification (rank of coal), and in the range of...

Power Plant Improvement Initiative PPII

The success of the CCT Program serves as a model for other cooperative government industry programs aimed at introducing new technologies into the commercial marketplace. Two follow-up programs have been developed that build on the successes of the CCT Program the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII) and the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI). The PPII, established by the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law 106-291), is a...

Others

Combining sorbent injection for mercury control with other technologies for NOx and or SO x removal represents another multipollutant control option 98 . Many companies are exploring sorbent and chemical injection techniques that can remove mercury at reasonable costs, including Sorbent Technologies Corporation, ADA-Environmental Solutions, URS Corporation, EPRI, and Alstom Power universities such as the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center and Penn State...

Basic Coal Analysis

Prior to discussing the rank, type, grade, and classification systems of coal, a brief description of basic coal analyses, upon which classification schemes are based, is provided. These analyses do not yield any information on coal structure but do provide important information on coal behavior and are used in the marketing of coals. Three analyses are used in classifying coal, two of which are chemical analyses and one is a calorific determination. The chemical analyses include proximate and...

References

W., Coal 3rd ed. (Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1993). 2. Elliot, M. A. (editor), Chemistry of Coal Utilization, Secondary Suppl. Vol. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981). 3. Moore, E. S., Coal Its Properties, Analysis, Classification, Geology, Extraction, Uses, and Distribution (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1922), p. 124. 4. Kuehn, S. E., Power for the Industrial Age A Brief History of Boilers, Power Engineering, Vol. 100, No. 2, February 1996, pp. 5-19. 5. Landels, J....

Coking Processes

Early processes for the production of coke were similar to those employed for the production of wood charcoal. Bituminous coal was built up into piles and ignited in such a way that only the outside layers actually burned while the central portion was carbonized 2 . Piles, also called kilns, appeared for the first time in England in 1657 and spread from there to other European bituminous coal producing regions. Around 1850, half-open brick kilns (i.e., the Schaumburg kiln) were constructed from...

The Use of Coal in the Pre Industrial Revolution

The use of coal as an energy source has been known from ancient times, although it was a minor resource until the Industrial Revolution. The first mention of coal in European literature dates from the fourth century B.C. 1 however, scholars are certain that coal was first used in China as early as 1000 B.C. 2 . By 1000 A.D., coal was a primary fuel source in China, and its use was reported by the Venetian traveler Marco Polo in the thirteenth century 3,4 . The first documented use of coal in...

Low Temperature Carbonization

Low-temperature carbonization was originally developed to provide town gas for residential and street lighting and to manufacture a smokeless fuel for domestic and industrial heating. The by-product tars were economically important and were often essential feedstocks for the chemical industry or were refined to gasoline, heating oils, and lubricants 19 . Low-temperature carbonization evolved and was used extensively in industrialized European countries but was eventually abandoned after 1945 as...