Surface factor z A

where c is the perimeter of the projection profile of the particles. For a spherical particle, z = 1, and for particles of any other shape, z > 1.

Although the three ratios (x, y, and z) do not permit exact characterization of particle shape, they are nevertheless descriptive. It is possible, therefore, to correlate particle behavior with the three ratios--elongation factor, bulkiness factor, and surface factor. As indicated, however, there have been other shape factors proposed to characterize particle shape (see Table 3 and the next section of this article).

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