1. H.E. Exner, Principles of Single Phase Sintering, Rev. Powder Metall. Phys. Ceram., Vol 1 (No. 1-4), 1979

2. H. Udin, A.J. Shaler, and J. Wulff, The Surface Tension of Solid Copper, Trans. AIME, Vol 185, 1949, p 186-190

3. R.M. German, Powder Metallurgy Science, 2nd ed., Metal Powder Industries Federation, 1994

4. G.C. Kuczynski, Self-Diffusion in Sintering of Metallic Particles, Trans. AIME, Vol 185, 1949, p 169-178

5. G.H. Gessinger, F.V. Lenel, and G.S. Ansell, Continuous Observation of the Sintering of Silver Particles in the Electron Microscopy, Trans. ASM, Vol 61, 1968, p 598-604

6. D.L. Johnson, New Method of Obtaining Volume, Grain Boundary, and Surface Diffusion Coefficients from Sintering Data, J. Appl. Phys., Vol 40, 1969, p 192-200

7. P.C. Eloff and F.V. Lenel, The Effect of Mechanical Constraints Upon the Early Stages of Sintering, Modern Developments in Powder Metallurgy, Vol 4, H.H. Hausner, Ed., Plenum Press, New York, 1971, p 291-302

8. G.C. Kuczynski, Statistical Approach to the Theory of Sintering, Sintering and Catalysis, G.C. Kuczynski, Ed., New York, 1975, p 325-337; G.C. Kuczynski, Statistical Theory of Sintering, Z Metallkd., Vol 67, 1976, p 606-610

9. B. Fisher and P.S. Rudman, Kirkendall Effect Expansion During Sintering in Cu-Ni Powder Compacts, Acta Metall., Vol 10, 1962, p 37-43

10. R.W. Heckel and M. Balasubramaniam, The Effects of Heat Treatment and Deformation on the Homogenization of Compacts of Blended Powders, Metall. Trans., Vol 2, 1971, p 379-391

11. R.A. Tanzilli, R.D. Lanam, and R.W. Heckel, Techniques for the Study of Homogenization in Compacts of Blended Powders, Advanced Experimental Techniques in Powder Metallurgy (Perspectives in Powder Metallurgy), Vol 5, J.S. Hirschhorn and K.H. Roll, Ed., Plenum Press, 1970, p 139-188

12. R.W. Heckel, Diffusional Homogenization of Compacted Blends of Powders, Powder Metallurgy Processing, H.A. Kuhn and A. Lawley, Ed., Academic Press, New York, 1978, p 51-97

13. M.S. Masteller, R.W. Heckel, and R.F. Sekerka, A Mathematical Model Study of the Influence of Degree of Mixing and Particle Size Variation on the Homogenization Kinetics of Compacted Blends of Powders, Metall. Trans. A, Vol 6, 1975, p 869-876

14. P.S. Rudman, An X-Ray Diffraction Method for the Determination of Composition Distribution in Inhomogeneous Binary Solid Solutions, Acta Crystallogr., Vol 13, 1960, p 905-909

15. R.M. German, Sintering Theory and Practice, John Wiley & Sons, 1996

Consolidation Principles and Process Modeling

Revised by Randall M. German, Pennsylvania State University

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