Process Modeling

The modeling of powder processing is quickly advancing, especially as numerical simulation tools become widely available. Die compaction, hot isostatic compaction, mixing, sintering, injection molding, hot forging, and extrusion are now computer simulated on a routine basis in production operations. Unfortunately, most of these models are proprietary, and details are closely guarded. Two areas where there is much information on powder processing models is in sintering. The activities started in the 1960s, but computation speed was slow. Over the next several years, the sophistication of the models progressed, and the computer speeds advanced, making it possible to computer simulate real sintering cycles in seconds. Thus, experimentation is more rapid via simulation, as compared to experimentation. Many powder processing operations have embraced these new technologies as tools to improve production control and process specification. As a few examples, the basic concepts in modeling die compaction and solid-state sintering are considered. Further information can be found by referring to the Selected References .

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