Paiits

reactants, t are the reducing metal reactants, i are the solid products (e.g., carbides, borides, nitrides), and i are the reduced metal products. In limiting cases, Eq 5 leads to the three main classes of CS reactions:

• Gasless combustion (Eq 1): Ny = 0, A'MOr = 0, and Nu = 0

• Gas-solid combustion (Eq 2): A'MO* = o, and Nz = 0, and NM = 0

• Reduction-type combustion (Eq 3): A/MO* y-Q, and Nz ~/~0

Thermodynamic calculations can identify the adiabatic combustion temperature, as well as the equilibrium phases and compounds present at that temperature. The composition of the equilibrium final products is determined by minimizing the thermodynamic potential. For a system with Ng) gas and N(s) solid number of components, at constant pressure, this may be expressed as:

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