where the subscript c stands for the cake and m for the mold. Now it is apparent that the volumetric flow is dependent on both permeabilities, as a pair of resistance in series (Ref 24).

The casting rate is dependent on both the volumetric flow rate and the total porosity of both the cake and mold. A mold of low porosity will have the highest penetration distance of the waterfront, representing the effective thickness, L. Consequently, the greater effective filter thickness and the lower permeability as dictated by the lower porosity will reduce the rate of fluid flow. The casting rate and cake permeability are similarly dependent on the void fraction of the cake.

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