Advanced Synthesis

Far-from-equilibrium synthesis leads to novel constitutional and microstructural effects and enhanced physical properties (Ref 16). A number of these techniques are summarized in the sections that follow in Table 4 with emphasis on the amount of departure from equilibrium.

Table 4 Departure from equilibrium achieved in various processes

Process

Maximum departure from

equilibrium, kJ/N

Solid-state quench

16

Quench from liquid (rapid solidification)

24

Mechanical alloying

30

Condensation from vapor

160

(a) Na, Avogadro's number of atoms

(a) Na, Avogadro's number of atoms

0 0

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