Constitutive Model for Metallic Powders with Ductile Particles

Several constitutive models have been applied to the numerical simulation of powder compaction in dies. The most widely used are variations of two types of models: models with an empirical quadratic yield function (Ref 32, 33, 34, 40, and 41) and Cap models (Ref 35, 36, 38, and 39).

The main practical advantages of a model of the first type as developed in Ref 34, 36, 40, and 41 include:

• A reasonable representation of the behavior of metal powders with ductile particles under monotonic loading

• A continuous yield function that facilitates its numerical implementation

• Experimental calibration with a relatively small number of tests

Furthermore, this model has been implemented in the compaction modeling finite element code PCS (Ref 42) that is in use by several parts manufacturers in the United States. The overall strategy presented here can be employed for any of the models described in the section "Constitutive Models for Metal Powder Compaction." The only difference lies in the range of experiments that need to be performed in order to determine any unknown functions in the models.

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