0 D Outside Diameter

Nominal pipe size (NPS) is used to describe a pipe by name only. In process piping, the term nominal refers to the name of the pipe, much like the name 2x4 given to a piece of lumber. The lumber does not actually measure 2 x 4, nor does a 6 pipe actually measure 6 in diameter. It's just an easy way to identify lumber and pipe. Outside diameter (OD) and inside diameter (ID), as their names imply, refer to pipe by their actual outside and inside measurements. Pipe V to 12 has an outside diameter...

C W

Plug valve drawing symbols. Figure 5-16. Butterfly valve. Courtesy of Crane Co. Figure 5-16. Butterfly valve. Courtesy of Crane Co. Figure 5-17. Butterfly valve drawing symbols. Relief valves have a purpose quite different from the previous valves. They are designed to release excessive pressure that builds up in equipment and piping systems. To prevent major damage to equipment, and more importantly, injury to workers, relief valves can release elevated pressures before they...

Creating Command Aliases

AutoCAD provides a number of methods to input user commands. Screen menus, pull-down menus and toolbars are just three of those methods. The most traditional method is through the keyboard. By typing a command name the user is able to initiate that command. A command alias is a short, quick keyboard input that is created to replace the traditional and more widely recognized command name. AutoCAD has several of these already in place. A couple of pre-existing aliases that you may be familiar...

Customizing AutoCAD

Efficiency can be described as the quantity and quality at which a desired result is attained. Productivity, likewise, measures the amount of return compared to the amount of effort. For anyone to be efficient and productive careful attention must be paid to the techniques and procedures they use to perform their tasks. The inclusion of AutoCAD into the design process has made designers and drafters more efficient at performing their tasks. Some simple modifications to AutoCAD techniques also...

Planning For Heat Expansion

Cold Loop Piping

Heat expansion can be quite significant on long runs of pipe, especially those in a pipe rack. To absorb the expansion of pipe in a rack, pipe loops are often incorporated. Figure 11-4 shows a pipe loop as a U-shaped routing of the line designed to contain the expansion of the pipe. Loops are typically located near the midpoint of a long run of pipe. Expansion will cause the two ends of the pipe to grow toward one another resulting in the distortion of the loop as shown in Figure 11-5. When...

Joining Cast Iron Pipe

Cast Iron Pipe Joint Leak

Cast iron pipe is grouped into two basic categories hub and spigot, and hubless. The hub, or bell, and spigot joint uses pipe with two different end types. The hub end of the pipe has an enlarged diameter, thus resembling a bell. The spigot end of the adjoining pipe has a flat or plain-end shape. The spigot is inserted into the bell to establish a joint. Two methods of preventing leaks on bell and spigot joints are compression and lead and oakum. The compression joint uses a one-piece rubber...

Architectural Engineering Companies

Pipe drafters and designers employed by architectural engineering companies apply their skills to commercial and high-rise buildings. These may include multi-story office buildings, hospitals, condominiums, shopping malls, or other similar structures. In addition to the industrial piping components such as those found in a typical boiler room, supplementary piping systems must be designed for plumbing, HVAC, and drainage systems that are also required in these structures. Pipe drafters and...

Long Radius Elbow

Long Radius Tube Chart

Dimensional sizes of fittings are typically provided by the manufacturer of the fitting. Manufacturers issue dimensioning charts containing lengths for a particular fitting. The dimensional charts used to establish sizes of fittings discussed in this text are listed on the Welded Fittings-Flanges Chart provided in Appendix A. As a reference, portions of that chart are used throughout this chapter when fitting measurements are needed. Using the Welded Fittings-Flanges Chart in Figure 3-4, find...

Short Radius Elbow

Equation Elbow Center

Another elbow that may be used under certain circumstances and with permission from the customer is the 90 short-radius elbow. The 90 short-radius ell makes a much sharper turn than does the long-radius ell (see Figure 3-8). Conversely, the short-radius ell also creates a rather large pressure drop inside the line and does not have the smooth flow characteristics the longradius ell has. For these reasons the short-radius ell is seldom used. Figure 3-8. Long-radius and short radius elbows....

Rolling Offsets

Engenharia Civil Png

The culmination of the isometric offset is the rolling offset. The rolling offset is a compound offset formed by replacing the two 90 elbows in Figure 13-20 with two 45 elbows. The result is an offset that changes elevation and direction simultaneously. Figure 13-24 shows the plan and elevation views of a rolling offset. Because of its complexity, adequate dimensions cannot be placed on the orthographic views that fully describe the rolling offset. An isometric is the best place for...

Multiple Angle Offsets

Multiple Plumbing Systems Images

Elbows are not the only piping components installed in angular positions. Nozzles are placed on vessels in locations where interferences are least likely to occur. As a result, nozzles oriented at angles of 10 , 20 , 35 , etc., are not uncommon. When offset or rolled elbows are added, complex math problems often result. Multiple angle configurations, such as the one in Figure 13-20, require additional calculations to determine dimensions for its length of pipe. We have already seen how unknown...

Mechanical Equipment

Steel Walkways With Ladder Rungs

Although components such as pipe, fittings, flanges, and valves, which are used to transport various commodities from one location in a piping facility to another, are important and impossible to do without, they play a minor role in the actual manufacturing of a salable product. Other components of a piping facility actually perform the tasks for which the facility is being built. These items are known collectively as mechanical equipment. Mechanical equipment is used to start, stop, heat,...

Control Valve Manifolds

Control Valve Manifolds Piping

Control of the commodity traveling through pipe and equipment and accessibility to the controlling apparatus are two major concerns in any piping facility. The control valve manifold addresses both of these concerns. The control valve manifold is a series of valves, fittings, and piping placed at grade or platform level that uses an automatic valve to control and monitor the flow of a commodity through a piping system. The photograph in Figure 12-2 depicts a typical control valve manifold...

Ring Type Joint

How Draw Rfwn Flange

Also known simply as ring joint, the ring-type joint does not use a gasket to form a seal between connecting flanges. Instead a round metallic ring is used that rests in a deep groove cut into the flange face (see Figure 4-6). The donut-shaped ring can be oval or octagonal in design. As the bolts are tightened, the metal ring is compressed, creating a tight seal. Although it is the most expensive, the ring-type joint is considered to be the most efficient flange used in process piping systems....

Exercise Information

Elbow Isometric Piping

The fittings depicted in Figure 3-60 will be used to complete the exercises in Chapters 3,4,5, and 10. To complete the exercises, draw the symbols below using the following guidelines. Start from scratch and draw all symbols full scale. Draw symbols with a PLINE having a width of .56 (9 i6) for single line symbols and a 0 width for double line fittings. Symbols requiring a full circular shape must be drawn with the PLINE command ARC option. These arcs can only be drawn with a 359 circumference....

Pipe Flexibility

Plumbing Hanger Spacing Chart

A major concern when arranging pipe in a rack is the amount of expansion and, to an extent, contraction that occurs when a cold pipe is heated to its normal operating temperature. Because the dimensions provided in the line spacing chart do not account for expansion of a pipe during the start-up of a unit, consideration must be given to the amount of expansion a pipe will undergo as its temperature begins to rise. If the expansion of a pipe will result in its interference with an adjacent pipe,...

Hanger Rods

Hanger rods are the standard supporting device used when a pipe, or pipes, must be supported from above. Hanger rods are suspended from overhead lines or structural supports. Two major styles of hanger rods are used. One is designed to support a single pipe and one intended to support multiple lines. Used on lines up to 24 in diameter, and having a load capacity of 4,800 pounds, the single pipe hanger uses a rod and clevis to provide support (see Figure 11-16). The multiple line hanger is often...

St 214

Application Cfrp Civil Engineering

IC - Cold IH - Hot IS - Safety PP - Personal Protection Figure 8-2. Application of specifications. Figure 8-2. Application of specifications. As extensive as specifications are, they should not be considered all encompassing. Specifications are divided into classes developed especially for particular services. Classes are categorized by the commodity within the pipe. They take into account whether the commodity is a gas or liquid, as well as design and operating temperatures, pressures, and...

Flange Bolt Hole Orientation

Pipeline Isometric Drawing Exercises

Single line 12 and smaller Double line 14 and larger Figure 4-27. Orifice flange drawing symbols. To complete any flanged assembly, two additional items are required bolts and gaskets. Bolts obviously hold mating flanges, nozzles, or valves together. The pressure rating of a flange will determine the size, spacing, and number of bolts required. As the nominal pipe size and pressure ratings change so will the diameter, spacing, and number of bolts. Flanges are designed to match the bolt circle...

Isometric dimensions and text callouts

Piping Isometric Dimensioning

SET UP TWO TEXT STYLES FOR ISOMETRIC DIMENSIONS AND CALLOUTS. NOTE AS YOU ENTER THE TEXT YOU WILL NEED TO ADJUST THE ROTATION ANGLE AS SHOWN. Figure 13-16 represents only three of the many offsets that can be created using 90 and 45 elbows. Example A of Figure 13-16 begins with a line traveling north. A 90 elbow is rolled downward and toward the east at a 45 angle. A 45 elbow is required to return the angular offset to a due easterly direction. This example is labeled as a vertical offset...

Arrangement Drawings Sections and Elevations

Arrangement Drawing

The arrangement drawing is the most significant drawing developed by a piping designer. This plan view drawing is a major source of information used in the fabrication and erection of the piping facility. Information on the arrangement drawing aids in the development of the piping model and isometric drawings. The piping arrangement drawing evolves from the foundation location and equipment location drawings. It shows all mechanical equipment and vessels in the unit and the pipes connecting...

Equipment Layout

Pipe Elevation Callout

Plot plans, foundation location drawings, and equipment location drawings are developed using the plant coordinate system. Universally recognized throughout the piping industry, the plant coordinate system uses intersecting grid lines, similar to the Cartesian coordinate system, to locate buildings, structures, foundations, equipment, and piping configurations. These intersecting grid lines, which originate from a designated control point, are drawn parallel to the north south and east west...

Ii

Shell and tube exchanger plan and elevation views. Figure 6-12. Double pipe exchanger. Courtesy of Nisseki Chemical Texas, Inc., Bayport, Texas. Figure 6-12. Double pipe exchanger. Courtesy of Nisseki Chemical Texas, Inc., Bayport, Texas. Figure 6-13. End view of a double pipe exchanger. Figure 6-15. Internal views of a kettle-type reboiler. 98 Pipe Drafting and Design Reboiler The reboiler, as the name implies, is used to replenish the temperature of a commodity. Two types of...

Drawing the Long Radius Elbow

Piping Elbow Center Chart

Two step-by-step methods will be presented for constructing the 90 long-radius elbow. Figure 3-6 shows the steps using manual drafting techniques and Figure 3-7 shows those steps using AutoCAD commands. Double line 14 and larger Figure 3-5. 90 long-radius elbow. 3- 12 ELBOW k 11 9X NOMINAL SIZE Figure 3-6.14-90 elbow. Manual drafting solutions. Step 1. Mark off the distance from the center of the fitting to the end of the fitting. This is the A dimension from the Welded Fittings-Flanges Chart....

Crude Oil Byproducts

Steel Pipe Handbook Engineering

Generally brick or gunite, fire-proofing is applied around the interior and exterior walls of a vessel skirt. It is necessary to prevent damage to vessel skirt in case a fire occurs. Nozzle. The tie-in connection between the vessel or equipment and the piping system. Nozzles are provided in locations where a commodity is either introduced or removed from a vessel or piece of equipment. Nozzle orientation. The angular arrangement of nozzles around the perimeter of a vessel's...

Isometric Dimensions

Piping Isometric Rolling Drawing

Length dimensions and informational notes or callouts are used on isometrics to define the pipe's exact routing through a facility. Placement of dimensions on the drawing establishes precise lengths between fittings, valves, equipment connections, etc. Information such as coordinates, elevations, nozzle projection, pipe size, and pound rating are used to calculate lengths of a run of pipe. As with orthographic views, dimensions are placed on isometrics that indicate center-to-center,...

Diagrams and Instrumentation

Overhead Sewer System Diagram

Flow diagrams describe in a schematic drawing format the flow of fluids and gases through a unit or an entire plant. By using symbols to represent various pieces of equipment, the flow diagram provides the piping designer with an overall view of the operation of a facility. The flow diagram used in this chapter is representative of the types used by many companies in the piping industry. While actual symbols may vary slightly from one company to the next, the look and feel of flow diagrams is...

TP3 TP4 Itpa

Piping Isometric Symbols

Piping orthographic views. Material take-off is the process by which each individual component that makes up a pipe configuration is tabulated for purchase or procurement. This means all piping components elbows, flanges, nuts, bolts, washers, gaskets, etc. must be accounted for so that purchases of those items can be made. Isometrics are also used by many companies as fabrication drawings. Once drawn and properly dimensioned, isometrics are provided to fabricators who will build...

Or

Single-line threaded flange drawing symbol. The reducing flange maintains all the dimensional characteristics of the larger end size. One exception however is the internal bore. The internal bore is manufactured to match that of the smaller pipe size. Figure 4-22 shows a 12 x 6-300 raised face slip-on flange. Notice the use of abbreviations to keep the size of the callout to a minimum. Reducing flanges are manufactured as weld neck, slipon, or threaded flange types. Figure 4-20....

Dimensioning Rolling Offsets

Isometric Piping Drawing Rolling Offsets

Figure 13-25 identifies the six measurements required to dimension a rolling offset. There are four length dimensions and two angular dimensions. When a rolling offset is part of a configuration similar to that shown in Figure 13-28, the lengths of the sides of triangle 3 are applied to the dimensions of the isometric box see Figure 13-25 . Notice the SA of triangle 3 in Figure 13-28 is equal to the RUN of the box, the ROLL of the box is equal to the SO of triangle 3, and angle X of triangle 3...

Detail Drawings

Civil Plan Grade Drawings

Although a simple note or callout can be sufficient in conveying information to a reader, an actual drawing representation will provide much more detailed information. One case in point is the TOS callout. Known to mean top of steel, this note, and others like it, is the only way of representing height on a plan view drawing. But on a section or elevation drawing, the actual structural steel member can be drawn to provide a graphical representation to the reader. By rendering, height...

Utility Stations

Utility Piping Stations

Organization is essential to quality design. Organizing a piping facility with maintenance in mind is crucial to efficient plant operation. Small independent maintenance centers called utility stations are located throughout a piping facility. Utility stations provide maintenance and operational personnel with centralized locations to find water, air, steam, and occasionally nitrogen. Utility stations are placed throughout a facility in such a manner to allow a utility hose 50'-0 long to cover...

Depropanizer Reflux Accumulator 01v102

Reflux Accumulator

Horizontal vessel vendor data drawing. 106 Pipe Drafting and Design Drawing the Horizontal Vessel Step 1. Determine the vessel's diameter and length as provided by the vendor drawing. Using the measurements from Figure 6-24, the vessel's ID is 4'-0 and its length from tangent line to tangent line is 15'-0. Step 2. Draw a horizontal centerline equal to the vessel's length. Step 3. Draw vertical construction lines on each end of the centerline. Along the right vertical line, measure...

Drawing the 45 Elbow

Elbow Engineering Drawing

Three step-by-step methods will be presented for constructing the 45 elbow. Figures 3-17 and 3-18 describe two manual methods for constructing the elbow. Figure 3-19 defines steps using AutoCAD commands to draw the elbow. Figure 3-14. 90 ell versus 45 ell. Figure 3-15. Welded Fittings-Flanges Chart. Figure 3-15. Welded Fittings-Flanges Chart. Figure 3-17. 45 elbow. Manual drafting solutions. Figure 3-17. 45 elbow. Manual drafting solutions. Step 1. Using construction lines, duplicate the...

Valves

Courtesy of Jenkins Bros. What is a Valve Courtesy of VMA Valve Manufacturers Association . A valve is a product rarely noticed by the average person, yet it plays an important role in the quality of our lives. Each time you turn on a water faucet, use your dishwasher, turn on a gas range, or step on the accelerator in your car you operate a valve. Without modern valve systems there would be no fresh, pure water in your home, no modern appliances, and no gasoline waiting...

Endfrdnt

Angle valve drawing symbols. Some manufacturers refer to lift check valves that employ the use of a ball as a ball check valve. Figure 5-11 depicts drawing symbols used to represent the check valve. Notice the top and front views are identical and both symbols indicate the direction of flow. The ball valve is an inexpensive alternative to other valves. Ball valves use a metal ball with a hole bored through the center, sandwiched between two seats to control flow. Used in many...

Cso Car Seal Open Csc Car Seal Closed Df Drain Funnel Lc Lock Closed Lo Lock Open Nc Normally Closed No Normally Open

Car Seal Open

Flow diagram and abbreviations. Controllers. Devices used to maintain a specified liquid level, temperature, pressure, or flow inside a vessel or piping system. They activate the control valve that regulates the level, temperature, pressure, and flow in and out of the vessel. Alarms. Signals via lights or horns that indicate the liquid level, temperature, or pressure inside a vessel is too high or too low or that there is no flow or reverse flow. Indicators. Devices used to indicate...