Isomerization Of nButane Isobutane Production

Because of the increasing demand for isobutylene for the production of oxygenates as gasoline additives, a substantial amount of n-butane is isomerized to isobutane, which is further dehydrogenated to isobutene. The Butamer process (Figure 6-8) has a fixed-bed reactor containing a highly selective catalyst that promotes the conversion of n-butane to isobutane equilibrium mixture.15 Isobutane is then separated in a deisobutanizer tower. The n-butane is recycled with make-up hydrogen. The...

Feed and product quality from dimerization of ethylene to 1butene21

Ethane + methane, vol 0.10 max Impurities, max. Acetylene, H2, H2O, methanol, ppmv 5 each Sulfur, chlorine, ppmw 1 each Product, polymerization grade butene-l Ethylene, wt 0.05 max Impurities, max. Dienes, acetylenics, ppmw 5 each CO, CO2, O2, H2O, methanol, ppmw 5 each By-product, C6 cut 2-Ethyl l-butene, wt 57.7 Hexadienes, wt 1.3 Other C6s, wt 2 5 C8+, wt 9.7 Properties Distillation end point, C less than 200 ethylene is used to alkylate benzene for the production of ethyl benzene, a...

Cracking Gas Feeds

The main gas feedstock for ethylene production is ethane. Propane and butane or their mixture, LPG, are also used, but to a lesser extent. They Ultimate yields from steam cracking various feedstocks45 Yield, wt Ethane Propane Butane Naphtha Gas oil Saudi NGL Ultimate yields from steam cracking various feedstocks45 Yield, wt Ethane Propane Butane Naphtha Gas oil Saudi NGL are specially used when coproduct propylene, butadiene, and the butenes are needed. The advantage of using ethane as a feed...

Preface to Second Edition

When the first edition of Chemistry of Petrochemical Processes was written, the intention was to introduce to the users a simplified approach to a diversified subject dealing with the chemistry and technology of various petroleum and petrochemical process. It reviewed the mechanisms of many reactions as well as the operational parameters (temperature, pressure, residence times, etc.) that directly effect products' yields and composition. To enable the readers to follow the flow of the reactants...

Acrolein Ch2chcho

Acrolein (2-propenal) is an unsaturated aldehyde with a disagreeable odor. When pure, it is a colorless liquid, that is highly reactive and polymerizes easily if not inhibited. The main route to produce acrolein is through the catalyzed air or oxygen oxidation of propylene. CH3CH CH2 + O2 r CH2 CHCHO + H2O AH -340.5 KJ mol Transition metal oxides or their combinations with metal oxides from the lower row 5a elements were found to be effective catalysts for the oxidation of propene to acrolein.2...

Properties And Uses Of Carbon Black

The important properties of carbon black are particle size, surface area, and pH. These properties are functions of the production process and the feed properties. Channel blacks are generally acidic, while those produced by the Furnace and Thermal processes are slightly alkaline. The pH of the black has a pronounced influence on the vulcanization time of the rubber. (Vulcanization is a physicochemical reaction by which rubber changes to a thermosetting mass due to cross-linking of the polymer...

Isoprene CH2C

Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is a colorless liquid, soluble in alcohol but not in water. Its boiling temperature is 34.1 C. Isoprene is the second important conjugated diene for synthetic rubber production. The main source for isoprene is the dehydrogenation of C5 olefins (tertiary amylenes) obtained by the extraction of a C5 fraction from catalytic cracking units. It can also be produced through several synthetic routes using reactive chemicals such as isobutene, formaldehyde, and propene...

Ethane Chemicals

The main source for ethane is natural gas liquids. Approximately 40 of the available ethane is recovered for chemical use. The only large consumer of ethane is the steam cracking process for ethylene production. A minor use of ethane is its chlorination to ethyl chloride By-product HCl may be used for the hydrochlorination of ethylene to produce more ethyl chloride. Hydrochlorination of ethylene, however, is the main route for the production of ethyl chloride C H LOR OX Y D EH YDRO REACTOR...

Addition Of Organic Acids To Propene

Isopropyl acetate is produced by the catalytic vapor-phase addition of acetic acid to propylene. A high yield of the ester can be realized (about 99 ) ch3ch ch2+ ch3cooh - ** ch3coch(ch3)2 Isopropyl acetate is used as a solvent for coatings and printing inks. It is generally interchangeable with methylethyl ketone and ethyl acetate. ISOPROPYL ACRYLATE (CH2 CHCOCH(CH3)2) Isopropyl acrylate is produced by an acid catalyzed addition reaction of acrylic acid to propylene. The reaction occurs in the...

Shift Conversion

The product gas mixture from the secondary reformer is cooled then subjected to shift conversion. In the shift converter, carbon monoxide is reacted with steam to give carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The reaction is exothermic and independent of pressure CO(g) + H2O (g) r CO2(g) + H2(g) AH -41 KJ The feed to the shift converter contains large amounts of carbon monoxide which should be oxidized. An iron catalyst promoted with chromium oxide is used at a temperature range of 425-500 C to enhance the...

Hh

The industrial reactions involving cis- and trans-2-butene are the same and produce the same products. There are also addition reactions where both l-butene and 2-butene give the same product. For this reason, it is economically feasible to isomerize 1-butene to 2-butene (cis and trans) and then separate the mixture. The isomerization reaction yields two streams, one of 2-butene and the other of isobutene, which are separated by fractional distillation, each with a purity of 80-90 . Table 2-36...

References

Hydrocarbon Processing, Vol. 78, No. 3, 1999, p. 29. 2. Chemical and Engineering News, July 5, 1999, p. 20. 3. Matar, S., Mirbach, M. and Tayim, H., Catalysis in Petrochemical Processes, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1989, p. 85. 4. DeMaglie, B. Hydrocarbon Processing, Vol. 55, No. 3, 1976, pp. 78-80. 5. Petrochemical Handbook,Hydrocarbon Processing, Vol. 70, No. 3, 1991, p. 156. 6. Olefins Industrial Outlook II, Chemical Industries Newsletter, SRI International, Menlo Park,...

Oxidation Of Propylene

The direct oxidation of propylene using air or oxygen produces acrolein. Acrolein may further be oxidized to acrylic acid, which is a monomer for polyacrylic resins. Ammoxidation of propylene is considered under oxidation reactions because it is thought that a common allylic intermediate is formed in both the oxidation and ammoxidation of propylene to acrolein and to acry-lonitrile, respectively. The use of peroxides for the oxidation of propylene produces propylene oxide. This compound is also...

Ti

The propagating polymer then terminates, producing an isotactic polypropylene. Linear polyethylene occurs whether the reaction takes place by insertion through this sequence or, as explained earlier, by lig-and occupation of any available vacant site. This course, however, results in a syndiotactic polypropylene when propylene is the ligand. Adding hydrogen terminates the propagating polymer. The reaction between the polymer complex and the excess triethylaluminum also terminates the polymer....

Sulfuric Acid H2so4

Sulfuric acid is the most important and widely used inorganic chemical. The 1994 U.S. production of sulfuric acid was 89.2 billion pounds. (most used industrial chemical).10 Sulfuric acid is produced by the contact process where sulfur is burned in an air stream to sulfur dioxide, which is catalytically converted to sulfur trioxide. The catalyst of choice is solid vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). The oxidation reaction is exothermic, and the yield is favored at lower temperatures SO2 (g) + 1 2O2 (g)...

Oligomerization of Olefins Dimerization

This process produces polymer gasoline with a high octane. Dimeri-zation was first used (1935) to dimerize isobutylene to diisobutylene, constituted of 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene (80 ) and 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentene (20 ). Both phosphoric and sulfuric acid were used as catalysts. At present, the feedstock is either a propylene-propane mixture or propylene-butane mixture where propane and butane are diluents. The Figure 3-10. Vapor phase equilibrium for hexanes.39 Figure 3-10. Vapor phase...

CH3CiCH H

The rearranged carbocation finally reacts with isobutane to form 2,2,3-trimethylbutane. The final product contains approximately 60-80 2,2-dimethylpen-tane and varying amounts of 2,2,3-trimethylbutane and 2-methylhexane. The primary process variables affecting the economics of sulfuric acid alkylation are the reaction temperature, isobutane recycle rate, reactor space velocity, and spent acid strength. To control fresh acid makeup, spent acid could be monitored by continuously measuring its...

Nitration Of Propane Production of Nitroparaffins

Nitrating propane produces a complex mixture of nitro compounds ranging from nitromethane to nitropropanes. The presence of lower nitroparaffins is attributed to carbon-carbon bond fission occurring at the temperature used. Temperatures and pressures are in the range of 390 -440 C and 100-125 psig, respectively. Increasing the mole ratio of propane to nitric acid increases the yield of nitropropanes. Typical product composition for 25 1 propane acid ratio is 5 Nitropropanes are good solvents...

A A

Head-to-head or tail-to-tail modes of addition are less likely because the intermediates are generally unstable Head-to-head or tail-to-tail modes of addition are less likely because the intermediates are generally unstable Head-to-head mode Tail-to-tail mode Chain growth continues until the propagating polymer chain terminates. Free radical initiators can polymerize olefinic compounds. These chemical compounds have a weak covalent bond that breaks easily into two free radicals when subjected...

Ethylene Glycol CH2OHCH2OH

Ethylene glycol (EG) is colorless syrupy liquid, and is very soluble in water. The boiling and the freezing points of ethylene glycol are 197.2 and -13.2 C, respectively. Current world production of ethylene glycol is approximately 15 billion pounds. Most of that is used for producing polyethylene terephtha-late (PET) resins (for fiber, film, bottles), antifreeze, and other products. Approximately 50 of the world EG was consumed in the manufacture of polyester fibers and another 25 went into...

Acetic Acid CH3COOH

The carbonylation of methanol is currently one of the major routes for acetic acid production. The basic liquid-phase process developed by BASF uses a cobalt catalyst at 250 C and a high pressure of about 70 atmospheres. The newer process uses a rhodium complex catalyst in presence of CH3I, which acts as a promoter. The reaction occurs at 150 C and atmospheric pressure. A 99 selectivity is claimed with this catalyst The mechanism of the carbonylation reaction is thought to involve a first-step...

Chlorination Of Propane Production of Perchloroethylene

Chlorination of propane with chlorine at 480-640 C yields a mixture of perchloroethylene (Perchlor) and carbon tetrachloride CH3CH2CH3 + 8Cl2 r CCl2 CCl2 + CCl4 + 8HCl Carbon tetrachloride is usually recycled to produce more perchloroethylene Perchlor may also be produced from ethylene dichloride (1,2-dichloroethane) through an oxychlorination-oxyhydrochlorination process. Trichloroethylene (trichlor) is coproduced (Chapter 7). Perchlor and trichlor are used as metal degreasing agents and as...

Vac residcrudebitumen

Deep catalytic cracking (DCC) is a catalytic cracking process which selectively cracks a wide variety of feedstocks into light olefins. The reactor and the regenerator systems are similar to FCC. However, innovation in the catalyst development, severity, and process variable selection enables DCC to produce more olefins than FCC. In this mode of operation, propylene plus ethylene yields could reach over 25 . In addition, a high yield of amylenes (C5 olefins) is possible. Figure 3-7 shows the...

Cresylic Acid

Cresylic acid is a commercial mixture of phenolic compounds including phenol, cresols, and xylenols. This mixture varies widely according to its source. Properties of phenol, cresols, and xylenols are shown in Table 4-526 Cresylic acid constitutes part of the oxygen compounds found in crudes that are concentrated in the naphtha fraction obtained principally from naphthenic and asphaltic-based crudes. Phenolic compounds, which are weak acids, are extracted with relatively strong aqueous caustic...

Hydration Of Propylene Isopropanol [CH3CHOHCH3

Isopropanol (2-propanol) is an important alcohol of great synthetic utility. It is the second-largest volume alcohol after methanol (1998 U.S. production was approximately 1.5 billion pounds) and it was the 49th ranked chemical. Isopropanol under the name isopropyl alcohol was the first industrial chemical synthesized from a petroleum-derived olefin (1920). The production of isopropanol from propylene occurs by either a direct hydration reaction (the newer method) or by the older sulfation...

Hydroformylation Reaction

Hydroformylation of olefins (Oxo reaction) produces aldehydes with one more carbon than the reacting olefin. For example, when ethylene is used, propionaldehyde is produced. This reaction is especially important for the production of higher aldehydes that are further hydrogenated to the corresponding alcohols. The reaction is catalyzed with cobalt or rhodium complexes. Olefins with terminal double bonds are more reactive and produce aldehydes which are hydrogenated to the corresponding primary...

Vinyl Chloride CH2CHCl

Vinyl chloride is a reactive gas soluble in alcohol but slightly soluble in water. It is the most important vinyl monomer in the polymer industry. The U.S. production of vinyl chloride, the 16th highest-volume chemical, was approximately 14.8 billion pounds in 1994. Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) was originally produced by the reaction of hydrochloric acid and acetylene in the presence of HgCl2 catalyst. The reaction is straightforward and proceeds with high conversion (96 on acetylene) However,...

Chemicals Based on Methane

As mentioned in Chapter 2, methane is a one-carbon paraffinic hydrocarbon that is not very reactive under normal conditions. Only a few chemicals can be produced directly from methane under relatively severe conditions. Chlorination of methane is only possible by thermal or photochemical initiation. Methane can be partially oxidized with a limited amount of oxygen or in presence of steam to a synthesis gas mixture. Many chemicals can be produced from methane via the more reactive synthesis gas...

Uses Of Naphthenic Acids And Its Salts

Free naphthenic acids are corrosive and are mainly used as their salts and esters. The sodium salts are emulsifying agents for preparing agricultural insecticides, additives for cutting oils, and emulsion breakers in the oil industry. Other metal salts of naphthenic acids have many varied uses. For example, calcium naphthenate is a lubricating oil additive, and zinc naphthenate is an antioxidant. Lead, zinc, and barium naphthenates are wetting agents used as dispersion agents for paints. Some...

Natural Gas Nonassociated and Associated Natural Gases

Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of light hydrocarbons accompanied by some non-hydrocarbon compounds. Non-associated natural gas is found in reservoirs containing no oil (dry wells). Associated gas, on the other hand, is present in contact with and or dissolved in crude oil and is coproduced with it. The principal component of most Composition of non-associated and associated natural gases1 Non-associated gas Associated gas Salt Lake Kliffside Abqaiq North Sea Component US US Saudi...

Thermoplastics And Engineering Resins

Thermoplastics are important polymeric materials that have replaced or substituted many naturally-derived products such as paper, wood, and steel. Plastics possess certain favorable properties such as light weight, corrosion resistance, toughness, and ease of handling. They are also less expensive. The major use of the plastics is in the packaging field. Many other uses include construction, electrical and mechanical goods, and insulation. One growing market that evolved fairly recently is...

Catalytic Cracking

Ch3ch2chch2

Catalytic cracking (Cat-cracking) is a remarkably versatile and flexible process. Its principal aim is to crack lower-value stocks and produce higher-value light and middle distillates. The process also produces light hydrocarbon gases, which are important feedstocks for petrochemicals. Catalytic cracking produces more gasoline of higher octane than thermal cracking. This is due to the effect of the catalyst, which promotes iso-merization and dehydrocyclization reactions. Products from...

Butylene Oxide CH3CH2CHCH2

Chlorohydrin

Butylene oxide, like propylene oxide, is produced by the chlorohydri-nation of l-butene with HOCl followed by epoxidation. The reaction conditions are similar to those used for propylene CH3CH2CH CH2 + HOCl r CH3CH2CHOHCH2Cl Butylene oxide may be hydrolyzed to butylene glycol, which is used to make plasticizers. 1,2-Butylene oxide is a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents and also an intermediate in organic synthesis such as in surfactants and pharmaceuticals. Hydration of n-Butenes (sec-Butanol...

Catalytic Reforming

Catalytic Reforming

The aim of this process is to improve the octane number of a naphtha feedstock by changing its chemical composition. Hydrocarbon compounds differ greatly in their octane ratings due to differences in structure. In general, aromatics have higher octane ratings than paraffins and cycloparaffins. Similar to aromatics, branched paraffins have high octane ratings. The octane number of a hydrocarbon mixture is a function of the octane numbers of the different components and their ratio in the...

Methyl Alcohol Ch3oh

Ch3ci Structure Images

Methyl alcohol methanol is the first member of the aliphatic alcohol family. It ranks among the top twenty organic chemicals consumed in the U.S. The current world demand for methanol is approximately 25.5 million tons year 1998 and is expected to reach 30 million tons by the year 2002.9 The 1994 U.S. production was 10.8 billion pounds. Methanol was originally produced by the destructive distillation of wood wood alcohol for charcoal production. Currently, it is mainly produced from synthesis...

Steam Cracking Process

Petrochemical Furnance Pictures

A typical ethane cracker has several identical pyrolysis furnaces in which fresh ethane feed and recycled ethane are cracked with steam as a diluent. Figure 3-12 is a block diagram for ethylene from ethane. The outlet temperature is usually in the 800 C range. The furnace effluent is quenched in a heat exchanger and further cooled by direct contact in a water quench tower where steam is condensed and recycled to the pyrolysis furnace. After the cracked gas is treated to remove acid gases,...

Fermentation Using nParaffins Single Cell Protein SCP

The term single cell protein is used to represent a group of microbial cells such as algae and yeast that have high protein content. The production of these cells is not generally considered a synthetic process but microbial farming via fermentation in which n-paraffins serve as the substrate. Substantial research efforts were invested in the past two decades to grow algae, fungi, and yeast on different substrates such as n-paraffins, methane, methanol, and even carbon dioxide. The product SCP...

Sulfur

Sulfur is a reactive, nonmetallic element naturally found in nature in a free or combined state. Large deposits of elemental sulfur are found in various parts of the world, with some of the largest being along the coastal plains of Louisiana. In its combined form, sulfur is naturally present in sulfide ores of metals such as iron, zinc, copper, and lead. It is also a constituent of natural gas and refinery gas streams in the form of hydrogen sulfide. Different processes have been developed for...

The Furnace Black Process

This is a more advanced partial combustion process. The feed is first preheated and then combusted in the reactor with a limited amount of air. The hot gases containing carbon particles from the reactor are quenched with a water spray and then further cooled by heat exchange with the air used for the partial combustion. The type of black produced depends on the feed type and the furnace temperature. The average particle diameter of the blacks from the oil furnace process ranges between 200-500...

Sulfonation Of nParaffins Secondary Alkane Sulfonates SAS

Linear secondary alkane sulfonates are produced by the reaction between sulfur dioxide and n-paraffins in the range of C15-C17. R-H 2SO2 2O2 H2O r RSO3H H2SO4 The reaction is catalyzed by ultraviolet light with a wave-length between 3,300-3,600A.21 The sulfonates are nearly 100 biodegradable, soft and stable in hard water, and have good washing properties. Sodium alkanesulfonates for detergent manufacture can also be produced from the free-radical addition of sodium bisulfite and alpha olefins

Solvent Extraction

Petrochemical Reformer

Liquid solvents are used to extract either desirable or undesirable compounds from a liquid mixture. Solvent extraction processes use a liquid solvent that has a high solvolytic power for certain compounds in the feed mixture. For example, ethylene glycol has a greater affinity for aromatic hydrocarbons and extracts them preferentially from a reformate mixture a liquid paraffinic and aromatic product from catalytic reforming . The raffinate, which is mainly paraffins, is freed from traces of...

Cracking Liquid Feeds

Ethylene Flow Diagram

Liquid feedstocks for olefin production are light naphtha, full range naphtha, reformer raffinate, atmospheric gas oil, vacuum gas oil, residues, and crude oils. The ratio of olefins produced from steam cracking of these feeds depends mainly on the feed type and, to a lesser extent, on the operation variables. For example, steam cracking light naphtha produces about twice the amount of ethylene obtained from steam cracking vacuum gas oil under nearly similar conditions. Liquid feeds are usually...

Hydrocracking Process

Hydrocracking is essentially catalytic cracking in the presence of hydrogen. It is one of the most versatile petroleum refining schemes adapted to process low value stocks. Generally, the feedstocks are not suitable for catalytic cracking because of their high metal, sulfur, nitrogen, and asphaltene contents. The process can also use feeds with high aromatic content. Products from hydrocracking processes lack olefinic hydrocarbons. The product slate ranges from light hydrocarbon gases to...

Hydration Of Ethylene Ethanol Production

Production Ethanol Hydration

Ethyl alcohol CH3CH2OH production is considered by many to be the world's oldest profession. Fermenting carbohydrates is still the Figure 7-6. The PPG Industries Inc. Chloroethylene process for producing perchloro- and trichloroethylene 15 1 reactor, 2 graphite exchanger, 3 refrigerated condenser, 4 scrubber, 5 phase separation of perchlor from trichlor, 6, 7 azeotropic distillation, 8 distillation train, 9-11 crude trichlor separation purification, 10-16 crude perchlor separation purification....

Aromatics Production

Butane Dehydrogenation

Liquefied petroleum gas LPG , a mixture of propane and butanes, is catalytically reacted to produce an aromatic-rich product. The first step is Figure 6-5. The DuPont butane to maleic anhydride process.' Figure 6-5. The DuPont butane to maleic anhydride process.' assumed to be the dehydrogenation of propane and butane to the corresponding olefins followed by oligomerization to C6, C7, and C8 olefins. These compounds then dehydrocyclize to BTX aromatics. The following reaction sequence...

Structurepoint Cpoint C

Butane Isomerization Process

Flow diagram of the Mobil xylene isomerization process.1 Figure 2-3. Flow diagram of the Mobil xylene isomerization process.1 by incorporating an isomerization unit to isomerize o- and m-xylenes to p-xylene. An overall yield of 90 p-xylene could be achieved. Figure 2-3 is a flow diagram of the Mobil isomerization process. In this process, partial conversion of ethylbenzene to benzene also occurs. The catalyst used is shape selective and contains ZSM-5 zeolite.12 Benzene C6H6 is the...

Nonhydrocarbon Intermediates

Furnace Petrochemical

From natural gas, crude oils, and other fossil materials such as coal, few intermediates are produced that are not hydrocarbon compounds. The important intermediates discussed here are hydrogen, sulfur, carbon black, and synthesis gas. Synthesis gas consists of a nonhydrocarbon mixture H2,CO obtainable from more than one source. It is included in this chapter and is further noted in Chapter 5 in relation to methane as a major feedstock for this mixture. This chapter discusses the use of...

Liquid Petroleum Fractions And Residues

Liquid Petroleum fractions are light naphtha, heavy naphtha, kerosine and gas oil. The bottom product from distillation units is the residue. These mixtures are intermediates through which other reactive intermediates are obtained. Heavy naphtha is a source of aromatics via catalytic reforming and of olefins from steam cracking units. Gas oils and residues are sources of olefins through cracking and pyrolysis processes. The composition and the properties of these mixtures are reviewed in the...

Aniline C6H5NH2

Benzene Treated With Phosgene

Aniline aminobenzene is an oily liquid that turns brown when exposed to air and light. The compound is an important dye precursor. The main process for producing aniline is the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene The hydrogenation reaction occurs at approximately 270 C and slightly above atmospheric over a Cu Silica catalyst. About a 95 yield is obtained. An alternative way to produce aniline is through ammonolysis of either chlorobenzene or phenol. The reaction of chlorobenzene with aqueous ammonia...

Ch2ch2 h2o

The hydrolysis reaction occurs at a temperature range of 50-100 C. Contact time is approximately 30 minutes. Di- and triethylene glycols are coproducts with the monoglycol. Increasing the water ethylene oxide ratio and decreasing the contact time decreases the formation of higher glycols. A water ethylene oxide ratio of 10 is normally used to get approximately 90 yield of the monoglycol. However, the di- and the triglycols are not an economic burden, because of their commercial uses. A new...

Chemicals From Butadiene

Petrochemical Processes

Butadiene is a diolefinic hydrocarbon with high potential in the chemical industry. In 1955, it was noticed that the assured future of butadiene CH2 CH-CH CH2 lies with synthetic rubber . . . the potential of butadiene is in its chemical versatility . . . its low cost, ready availability, and great activity tempt researchers.20 Butadiene is a colorless gas, insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol. It can be liquefied easily under pressure. This reactive compound polymerizes readily in the...

Ammonia Production Haber Process

Reactor For Petrochemicals

The production of ammonia is of historical interest because it represents the first important application of thermodynamics to an industrial process. Considering the synthesis reaction of ammonia from its elements, the calculated reaction heat AH and free energy change AG at room temperature are approximately -46 and -16.5 KJ mol, respectively. Although the calculated equilibrium constant Kc 3.6 x 108 at room temperature is substantially high, no reaction occurs under these conditions, and the...

Chemicals From Xylenes

Oxidation Para Xylene

Xylenes dimethylbenzenes are an aromatic mixture composed of three isomers o-, m-, and p-xylene . They are normally obtained from catalytic reforming and cracking units with other C6, C7, and C8 aromat-ics. Separating the aromatic mixture from the reformate is done by extraction-distillation and isomerization processes Chapter 2 . para-Xylene is the most important of the three isomers for producing terephthalic acid to manufacture polyesters. m-Xylene is the least used of the three isomers, but...

Oxidation Of Paraffins Fatty Acids and Fatty Alcohols

Petrochemical

The catalytic oxidation of long-chain paraffins Ci8-C30 over manganese salts produces a mixture of fatty acids with different chain lengths. Temperature and pressure ranges of 105-120 C and 15-60 atmospheres are used. About 60 wt yield of fatty acids in the range of Cl2-Cl4 is obtained. These acids are used for making soaps. The main source for fatty acids for soap manufacture, however, is the hydrolysis of fats and oils a nonpetroleum source . Oxidation of paraffins to fatty acids may be...

Steam Cracking Of Hydrocarbons Production of Olefins

The main route for producing light olefins, especially ethylene, is the steam cracking of hydrocarbons. The feedstocks for steam cracking units range from light paraffinic hydrocarbon gases to various petroleum fractions and residues. The properties of these feedstocks are discussed in Chapter 2. The cracking reactions are principally bond breaking, and a substantial amount of energy is needed to drive the reaction toward olefin production. The simplest paraffin alkane and the most widely used...

Reactions And Chemicals Of Benzene

Linear Alkyl Benzene Flowsheet

Benzene C6H6 is the most important aromatic hydrocarbon. It is the precursor for many chemicals that may be used as end products or inter mediates. Almost all compounds derived directly from benzene are converted to other chemicals and polymers. For example, hydrogenation of benzene produces cyclohexane. Oxidation of cyclohexane produces cyclohexanone, which is used to make caprolactam for nylon manufacture. Due to the resonance stabilization of the benzene ring, it is not easily polymerized....

Production Of Diolefins

Butadiene Flowchart

Diolefins are hydrocarbon compounds that have two double bonds. Conjugated diolefins have two double bonds separated by one single bond. Due to conjugation, these compounds are more stable than mono-olefins and diolefins with isolated double bonds. Conjugated diolefins also have different reactivities than monoolefins. The most important industrial diolefinic hydrocarbons are butadiene and isoprene. Product composition from cracking atmospheric gas oil and vacuum gas oil44,48,50 Product...

Ch3chch2 h2o2 ch3chch2 h2o

Deriatives and Uses of Propylene Oxide Similar to ethylene oxide, the hydration of propylene oxide produces propylene glycol. Propylene oxide also reacts with alcohols, producing polypropylene glycol ethers, which are used to produce polyurethane foams and detergents. Isomerization of propylene oxide produces allyl alcohol, a precursor for glycerol. The 1994 U.S. production of propylene oxide, the 35th highest-volume chemical, was approximately 3.7 billion pounds. Table 8-3 shows the 1992 U.S....

Hch co 2h2 hoch9ch9oh

F. and Matar S., Petrochemicals from Methane From Hydrocarbons to Petrochemicals, Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, 1981, p. 49. 2. Chemical and Engineering News, Aug. 16, 1999, p. 7. 3. Stevenson, R. M., Introduction to the Chemical Process lndustries, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1966, p. 293. 4. Al-Najjar, I. M., CFC's Symposium Phase out Chlorofluorocarbons Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. No. 24, 1992, pp. 398-441. 5. Shahani, G. H., et al., Hydrogen and...

Hydrodealkylation Process

Benzene Methane

This process is designed to hydrodealkylate methylbenzenes, ethyl-benzene and C9 aromatics to benzene. The petrochemical demand for benzene is greater than for toluene and xylenes. After separating benzene Figure 3-8. Flow diagram of a Cheveron hydocracking unit 29 1,4 reactors, 2,5 HP separators, 3 recycle scrubber optional , 6 LP separator, 7 fractionator. Figure 3-8. Flow diagram of a Cheveron hydocracking unit 29 1,4 reactors, 2,5 HP separators, 3 recycle scrubber optional , 6 LP separator,...

Uses of Acrylonitrile

4cn Oxidation

Acrylonitrile is mainly used to produce acrylic fibers, resins, and elastomers. Copolymers of acrylonitrile with butadiene and styrene are the ABS resins and those with styrene are the styrene-acrylonitrile resins SAN that are important plastics. The 1998 U.S. production of acrylonitrile was approximately 3.1 billion pounds.10 Most of the production was used for ABS resins and acrylic and modacrylic fibers. Acrylonitrile is also a precursor for acrylic acid by hydrolysis and for adiponitrile by...

Viscosity Breaking Visbreaking

Diagrama Flujo Ingenieria Civil

Viscosity breaking aims to thermally crack long-chain feed molecules to shorter ones, thus reducing the viscosity and the pour point of the product. In this process, the feed is usually a high viscosity, high pour point fuel oil that cannot be used or transported, especially in cold climates, due to the presence of waxy materials. Wax is a complex mixture of long-chain paraffins mixed with aromatic compounds having long paraffinic side chains. Vis-breaking is a mild cracking process that...

Isoprene H2CCCHCH2

Isoprene 2-methyl 1,3-butadiene is the second most important conjugated diolefin after butadiene. Most isoprene production is used for the manufacture of cis-polyisoprene, which has a similar structure to natural rubber. It is also used as a copolymer in butyl rubber formulations. Crude Oil Processing and Production of Hydrocarbon Intermediates 105 Production There are several different routes for producing isoprene. The choice of one process over the other depends on the availability of the...

Olefinic Hydrocarbons

The most important olefins used for the production of petrochemicals are ethylene, propylene, the butylenes, and isoprene. These olefins are usually coproduced with ethylene by steam cracking ethane, LPG, liquid petroleum fractions, and residues. Olefins are characterized by their higher reactivities compared to paraffinic hydrocarbons. They can easily react with inexpensive reagents such as water, oxygen, hydrochloric acid, and chlorine to form valuable chemicals. Olefins can even add to...

Introduction

In general, primary raw materials are naturally occurring substances that have not been subjected to chemical changes after being recovered. Natural gas and crude oils are the basic raw materials for the manufacture of petrochemicals. The first part of this chapter deals with natural gas. The second part discusses crude oils and their properties. Secondary raw materials, or intermediates, are obtained from natural gas and crude oils through different processing schemes. The intermediates may be...

Rconhr

Some of the more abundant are sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, iron, vanadium, and nickel. They are present either as inorganic salts, such as sodium and magnesium chlorides, or in the form of organometallic compounds, such as those of nickel and vanadium as in porphyrins . Calcium and magnesium can form salts or soaps with carboxylic acids. These compounds act as emul-sifiers, and their presence is undesirable. Although metals in crudes are found in trace...