Job Vacancies in the Oil Industry

How To Get A Job On The Rigs

In this ebook you'll learn: Exactly what the oil rig jobs myth really is. This knowledge alone, should you choose to believe it, will put you ahead of all the people you have ever heard say I tried to get a job on the rigs and its almost impossible A little known fact that will expand your options. I am continually suprised about how many people dont realise this option is available to them. How to put yourself ahead of the pack. Including a detailed explanation of the following 5 points. Job training requirements and possible courses you could do. Previous experience that you could use to your advantage. An Insiders tip that will give you an advantage that no other applicants would think to do. When is the best time to apply. And where to look to find entry level jobs. What to expect. Including everything from your first day, to sleeping patterns, to how to position yourself for promotion and even an overview of the rig process. Other areas of opportunity that you may not have been aware of and where to look for them. Women on the rigs. And last but not least the #1 place for opportunity in the industry today!

How To Get A Job On The Rigs Summary

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Author: Matt Cinnamond
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Introduction Basic Principles and Applications

However, the widely studied Navier-Stokes equations apply only to simple fluids like air and water, known as Newtonian fluids. Fortunately, a large number of practical Newtonian applications deal with important problems, for instance, external flows past airplanes, internal flows within jet engines, and free surface flows about ships, submarines, and offshore platforms. But for wide classes of fluids, unfortunately, the rules of thumb available to Newtonian flows break down, and useful design laws and operational guidelines are lost.

Examples Of Incorrect Formulations

The importance of curvilinear grid systems (using corner-point methods) that capture geometric details in a reservoir is understood in reservoir simulation. These general mappings typically introduce second-derivative cross-terms in the transformed flow equations, which unfortunately, are deliberately and completely ignored by many matrix inversion routines because they introduce numerical inefficiencies and instability. In many applications, the ideal structure of the governing coefficient matrix is destroyed by real-world constraints, but these constraints are disregarded for computational expediency. Thus, the reservoir engineering department of one large oil company issues a warning to its users, noting that corner-point results are suspect and probably incorrect. Proper use of boundary-conforming curvilinear meshes, developed here, avoids these problems.

Oil field applications

Have been used to deliver plant and major construction modules, and as drilling rigs in these areas. On beach areas, which conventional craft have difficulty in accessing, the ACV can be used as work boat, communication vessel and exploration survey craft, and even as air cushion oil exploration platform. Hover platform payload requirements are generally in the range of 100 to 250 tonnes, although if the market were to develop in the future then 500 to 2000 tonnes would be a more useful unit for wider application.

Horizontal Deviated and Modern Multilateral Well Analysis

So far we have performed detailed studies for flow over isolated bodies, for example, curved fractures, shale arrays, and fractured boreholes. Here we will focus on steady and transient-compressible reservoir-scale flows produced by multilateral well systems. Because their topologies are not simple, we turn to computational methods. We will highlight problems that arise in reservoir simulator development, and importantly, we will describe a recently developed, three-dimensional algorithm that is very robust, numerically stable, exceptionally fast, and extremely accurate, and now available to the user community. Engineering implementation is an objective of the work oil companies want practical solutions that optimize operations, profits, and time value of money. The model provides tools that evaluate what if production scenarios, infill drilling strategies, and waterflood sweep efficiencies. In addition to being accurate, the solutions require minimal hardware, software, and costly...

Chapter Three Pressure Control Procedures While Tripping

Actually, classical pressure control procedures apply only to problems which occur during drilling operations. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted procedure to be followed when a kick occurs during a trip. Further, procedures and instructions which apply to problems during drilling are routinely posted on the rig floor. However, just as routinely, there are no posted instructions which apply to procedures to be followed if the kick occurs during a trip. A federal court in Pecos, Texas, found a major oil company grossly negligent because procedures for problems occurring while drilling were posted and procedures for problems occurring while tripping were not. One purpose of this chapter is to suggest that classical trip procedures be adopted, taught and posted.

Purification Of Salt Water

The great attraction of desalting water is that over 97 of the world's supply of water is saline furthermore, much of it is contiguous to arid regions. An example of the importance of desalting is the experience at Kuwait. During the early 1950s, the Kuwait Oil Company built an oil refinery dependent on desalted water from the Gulf. In 1953, the Kuwait government put into service a then-large capacity (1.2 mgd) desalting plant of 10 triple-effect, submerged tube evaporators. This installation is also an example of economics favorable to desalting, as the heat source for the evaporative process was waste or natural gas.

Hydrocyclones and Flotation

Flotation was practised extensively on fixed offshore platforms throughout the 1970s and 1980s to clean-up produced water prior to overboard discharge. As the volumes of produced water have increased with field life, water-handling facilities have become constrained. Operators have retrofitted produced water processing capacity using hydrocyclones rather than flotation machines, because the former have a smaller footprint per volumetric flow rate of produced water treated. However, flotation oil-water separation technology has a place on offshore platforms as a polishing stage for produced water clean-up following initial treatment by hydrocyclones. One design uses what is in principle a dissolved air flotation vessel downstream of the oil-water separation hydrocyclones.

Civil Engineering and Material of Construction

For example, many oil-water separation columns are pressurized or some installations use circulating inert gases to minimize oxidation. When columns are installed for oil-water separation duties, mainly on offshore platforms, a circulating hydrocarbon gas (propane) is often used instead of air.

Ultimate Strength

Stiffened plates are frequently used as load-bearing components in marine structures. Typical example uses are the hull girder of a ship, the pontoons of a semi-submersible, and the deck of offshore platforms. The main type of framing system in hull girders consists of relatively closely spaced longitudinal stiffeners with more widely spaced heavier girders in the transverse direction. This is illustrated in Figure 10.1 for a bottom side structure. The hydrostatic load, that is the difference between external and internal pressure, is transfer from plates to stiffeners, which again, through beam action, transfer the loads to the transverse girders.

Economics of flow measurement

If you are producing a well at .25MMcfd, one level of equipment and procedure investment is justified whereas, a station delivering 25MMcfd or 250MMcfd may require another. Similar thinking applies to liquid measurement. Physical limitations such as available power, cost of space to install equipment, and effect on the environment must also be considered. On offshore platforms, where space costs a premium, meters that can be installed with a minimum of piping have been used because of the savings realized. A large portion of the new metering devices' electronic readouts require good quality and dependable power. In some remote locations where commercial power is not available, the cost of getting the proper power may exceed the cost of the metering. In this case, the cost of power may dictate the use of mechanical or pneumatic readout devices or some local generated source such as solar or thermoelectric. These power sources are normally low wattage devices, which may restrict the...

46 Steps towards the fuelcell engine

The publication by the OECD International Energy Agency in 1998 of 'World Energy Outlook', a year after the Kyoto Earth Summit, was a pivotal point in understanding world energy and pollution problems. The basic message was that, as people now live longer, energy usage and pollution rise exponentially and a 'brick-wall situation threatening in ten years' time means that we cannot stay as we are'. It was also from this point that the major G7 economies took global warming seriously. China, too, takes it seriously, realizing that nine-tenths of its population live in its southeastern corner delta region, which could be subject to flooding if global warming is not seriously addressed. World oil supply is expected to peak in 2010 and then tail off this is unless the cost can be met of tapping into the vast oil deposits beneath the polar icecaps. But North American motorists remain blissfully unaware of these threatening situations. While the UK and Europe pay what gasoline and diesel...

Future Developments

In 1979 an oil industry task force recommended plate pack gravity separators or IGF for produced water clean-up. Six years later the first large hydrocyclone installation - about 15 m3 min1 - was operating successfully in the North Sea, so the points below relate only to the immediate future, perhaps prior to 2003.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas LPG

LPG is the name originally given by the oil industry to a mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons principally propane and butane and mixtures of the two. LPG is used as a clean fuel for domestic and industrial purposes. These gases may be converted to the liquid form and transported in one of three conditions

41 First principle Continuous improvement in OEE

Figure 4.4 illustrates how the OEE links to the six losses. This demonstrates that central to the philosophy of TPM is the identification of reasons for the causes and effects of the six losses, such that their elimination is bound to lead to an improvement in the OEE. An example from the offshore oil industry shown in Figure 4.5 illustrates that poor asset care can lead to inadequate

Introduction to Liquid Liquid Hydrocyclones

Table 1 lists the key stages in arriving at the present near-universal usage of hydrocyclones for removal of oil contaminants from water in the oil industry offshore and more recently onshore. Concentrators, sometimes called 'dehydration hydrocyclones', are used in very wet oilfields as the initial stage to reduce the water (brine) content from, say, 95 to 50 or less. Under some conditions the overflow stream inverts to become oil continuous.

Viscous Flow Around Rotating Ships

Offshore oil and gas production is advancing fast towards water depth deeper and deeper. In the last couple of years, world records have been successively superceded. Oil industry is about to achieve production in fields approaching 2000m water depth while keeping on exploring new oil reservoirs in regions close to 3000m deep.

Power Law Flow Option Selected

These (large) pressure gradients and those of Example 5 are in agreement with laboratory data obtained by two different oil companies for this experimental mud. Because power law models exclude the possibility of plug flow, the velocity distribution calculated is somewhat different.

191 Shipowners And Operators

Typical examples of this are the tanker fleets owned by oil companies ships specially designed to carry iron ore and or coal owned by steelmakers and ships designed to carry cars in bulk owned by major car manufacturers. The U.S. anti-pollution laws have had a severe impact on some of the major oil companies who now refuse to trade with their own vessels in U.S. waters because of the virtually unlimited liability that applies there and instead charter in from

175Octane number and antiknock index

There is also a third indicator of detonation resistance, which is termed the CFR road octane number, the initials CFR standing for co-operative fuel research. This is a criterion of the engine instead of the fuel. It is determined for individual engines on a co-operative basis by the major national and international oil companies, who test a number of cars of each model and pool their results to produce a comprehensive set of data indicating the quality of fuel needed to satisfy the needs in their markets. This work is necessary because, owing to differences between fuel metering systems, engine and manifold layouts and sizes, and fuel distribution between cylinders, each type of engine tends to perform differently with a fuel of any given RON.

642 Ammonium Nitrate Explosion Catastrophe in Texas City USA 1947

The explosion killed over 200 people who had crowded to the dockside to watch the fire, the ship's crew of 32 people, and 4 people in two aircraft circling overhead. Severe damage occurred and new widespread fires were initiated in a nearby Monsanto complex, as well as in the tank parks of a number of oil companies in the neighborhood. Pieces of wreckage traveled up to one km.

1331 North Americas Gas Resources

In 1977, Hubbert, at the request of the U.S. Congress, predicted a peak in U.S. gas production of 23 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) per year in 1977, followed by rapid decline. Hubbert predicted that by 1990 production would drop to 13 Tcf year and would further decrease to 10 Tcf year by 1995. Hubbert was not alone. Major oil companies were predicting gas resources sufficient for

Fuel Cells From The Laboratory To The Road

The fuel supply system is critical for an automobile. Today's drivers are familiar with pulling up to a pump and putting gasoline or diesel into their tanks at a rate of between 6 and 12 gallons per minute. There are regulations in effect to contain any evaporative emissions and fuel volatility is adjusted seasonally regionally by the oil companies to insure proper vehicle performance. In addition vehicle manufactures take great measures to insure the vehicles perform at ambient temperatures ranging from -40C to 50C. Customers expect immediate starting with no stalls at any time along with immediate response in all conditions. Modem Electronic Fuel Injection Systems are all capable of delivering this performance.

A 4inch Hydrocyclone For Desilting Muds

For many drilling rigs, a set of Picenco SILTMASTERS large enough to process slightly more than the total circulating rate will handle the solids load below good screens. However, they will plug immediately under bypassed screen conditions (unless protected by VOLUMEMASTERS ) and will tend to plug quickly if overloaded (rope discharge) by relatively fast penetration rates in medium and large holes.

Precautions and Procedures for Low Temperature Operations

A survey of 13 drilling contractors operating 193 drilling rigs in northern Canada and Alaska indicated that there is a wide range of experience and operating practices under extremely low-temperature conditions. A sizable number of portable masts failed in the lowering or raising process in winter. Thus the exposure to low-temperature failures focuses on mast lowering and raising operations. Based on reports, however, this operation has been accomplished successfully in temperatures as low as -50 F. While the risk may be considerably greater because of the change in physical characteristics of steel at low temperatures, operators may carry on normal operations even at extremely low temperatures. This may be accomplished by closely controlled inspection procedures and careful handling and operation to reduce damage and impact loading during raising and lowering operations. At present, there seems to be no widely accepted or soundly supported basis for establishing a critical...

Piping And Equipment Arrangement

The most common problem on drilling rigs is inadequate fluid routing, which allows drilling fluid to be processed through the equipment in a sequential manner. When a substantial amount of drilling fluid bypasses a piece of solids removal equipment, drilled solids cannot be removed. Many factors contribute to inadequate fluid routing including ill-advised manifolding of centrifugal pumps for hydrocyclone or mud cleaner operations, leaking valves, improper mud gun use in the removal section, and routing drilling fluid incorrectly through mud ditches. Suction and discharge lines on drilling rigs should be as short and straight as possible. Sizes should be such that the flow velocity within the pipe is kept between 5 and 10 ft sec. Higher velocities are usually turbulent and cause erosion where the pipe changes direction lower velocities may result in settling problems. The flow velocity may be calculated with the equation

Commonly Used Oil Field Pumps

A reciprocating pump is a positive-acting, displacement pump, which creates flow by displacing liquid from a cylinder or cavity with a moving member, or piston. Each chamber, or cylinder, is filled and emptied by the mechanical motion of a piston that alternately draws-in and then expels liquid. Available horsepower and the strength of the pump's structural parts determine pressure capabilities. Volume, or capacity, delivered per stroke by a reciprocating pump is constant regardless of pressure. The flow rate varies with changes in piston speed, the diameter of the cylinder in which the piston moves, and the stroke length of the piston. Most reciprocating pumps use multiple cylinders (i.e., duplex, triplex, etc.) to regulate the pulsating flow generated by the reciprocating motion. They are used primarily on drilling rigs as mud and cement pumps. Centrifugal or rotary pumps, except for special applications, have replaced small reciprocating pumps, although they are still used where...

Cost of Removing Drilled Solids

To be reduced to a 696 volume target concentration, they must be blended into 2400 bbl of slurry. To create the 2400 bbl of slurry, 2256 bbl of clean drilling fluid must be added to the 146 bbl of solids 146 bbl 2256 + 146 bbl) 6 volume. Not only would the cost of the clean drilling fluid be prohibitive, but most drilling rigs do not have the necessary surface volume to build 2256 bbl of clean drilling fluid for every 1,000 feet of hole drilled. (See Chapter 8 for a more complete discussion of dilution calculations.)

284 Sinking of a North Sea floating rig

In use the pontoons (Figure 28.2) were full of water and the rig was partly submersed in the water for maximum stability. When being moved the pontoons were pumped out and the rig rose 21 m higher. Though designed as a drilling rig it was being used only for accommodation. During a heavy storm in March 1980 column D, like the others 8.5 m diameter, broke and the rig turned upside down. There were 212 men on the rig at the time 123 of them died.

202 Process Intensification 2021 Introduction

In many unit operations such as distillation, absorption and liquid-liquid extraction, fluids pass down columns solely under the force of gravity and this limits not only the flowrates that may be attained, but also rates of mass and also heat transfer. When a force other than gravity is utilised, such as a centrifugal force for example, then, in theory, there is no limit to the force which can be applied nor indeed to the increase in heat and mass transfer rates that may be achieved. A reduction in residence times is also possible and this leads to a decrease in the physical size of the plant itself. One fairly simple example of this reduction in plant size, or process intensification as it is termed, may be seen by comparing the relatively vast size of a settling tank with the very modest size of a centrifuge accomplishing the same task. The advantage of reducing plant size in this way has been prompted by the fairly recent requirement for processing units which are suitable for...

Basic Engineering Soil Properties

In general, soil overlays rock formations, and the soil is related to the rock since the rock was its source. Where the soil ends (in depth) and rock begins is not a well-defined interface. Basically, the depth to which soil is found is that depth where excavation by land methods can be employed. The area where the removal of material requires drilling, wedging, and blasting is believed to be the beginning of rock (in the engineering sense). The engineering properties of soil are of importance to petroleum engineering because it is soil that the drilling engineer first encounters as drilling is initiated. But, more important, it is soil that must support the loads of the drilling rig through an appropriately designed foundation. Further, the production engineer must support the well head surface equipment on soil through an appropriately designed foundation.

Industry Applications

In the past, most drilling and completion rigs utilized direct drive diesel engines as prime movers. This was especially so of the large (deeper drilling) land rigs. The smaller land rigs utilize direct drive gas (including LPG and natural gas) engines. However, over the past decade, there has been an increasing trend to utilize diesel-engine-driven generators, which in turn operate direct-current motors for large land rigs and especially offshore drilling rigs. These direct-current electric motors are used for the drawworks and rotary table drives because of high starting-torque requirements for these operations.

Rapid Growth of the Mud Industry

After the California Division of Oil and Gas Operations was established in 1915, the employment of engineers in the oil industry began to increase. Usually, the engineers were concerned only with production and little attention was given to drilling.20 Several discussions on the use of mud were reported, however, in Summary of Operations California Oil Fields2 J and some of these were reprinted in oil industry publications.22 In the late 1920s, several of the major oil companies initiated research into drilling and production practices. Drilling mud was recognized as a colloidal suspension and was accepted as a subject for investigation, primarily by chemists. Sellers of clays emphasized the colloidal character of their products. The development of gel structure when the flow of clay suspension stopped was accentuated as a desirable feature. The superior mud-making qualities of Wyoming bentonite were generally recognized. Mr. Rubel35 initiated a study by Union Oil Company of mud cake...

Modeling Of Sedimentary Sequences Based On Welllogging Data

The major obstacle for the stratigraphic subdivision based on microfossils, however, is the scarcity of core samples in complicated subsurface conditions. In fact, there are only a few of them. In addition, the exploratory wells are positioned on the single-well offshore platforms. Boreholes may be as deep as 6,000 m, with complex deviation. Thus, most of the information on the penetrated section is based on logs.

Azerbaijan Portion the Apsheron PreBalkhan Trend

The situation changed following the discovery of the Gyuneshli Oil Field when the Kaspmorneftegazprom Production Association obtained modern floating deep-water drilling rigs. Subsequently, detailed CDP surveys were conducted on the structures discovered in the region, and the Azeri and Chyragh structures were delineated. Most of the large structures, however, were studied only by the wide-spaced seismic

911 Automatic insertion of fasteners

Where threaded parts are concerned, designers have been bedevilled by the numerous thread forms that have been available through history and many are still with us today in spite of the UK's declared policy to recommend the adoption of the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) metric screw thread system. Existing thread systems include Whitworth, British Standard Fine (BSF), British Association (BA) as well as a range of pipe threads, gas threads, oil industry threads and fire service threads. However, there has been a part change typified by the use of ISO inch series of threads (Unified Coarse and Unified Fine). Nevertheless, wherever possible, new designs and updates should call for ISO metric thread systems.

Design Assumptions Stress Evaluation and Design Limits

In addition to material specifications for line pipe, threads, etc., the American Petroleum Institute has standards for certain types of iron or steel valves for refinery or drilling and production service (API Standards 600, 6C and 6D) and for ring-joint flanges (API Standard 6B). The flanges and ratings utilized in Standard 600 are based on ASA standards. Standards 6C and 6D assign separate pressure ratings for pipe line service and drilling and production service at 100 F. In addition to utilizing ASA Standard flanges, API Standard 6B includes a special 2900 lb series. This is similar to the original assignment of a 4000 lb rating to 1500 lb series flanges, drilled one size smaller, which was advanced and used by The M. W. Kellogg Company, except that the design was refined, in accordance with calculations using ASME Code formulas, by Messrs. Petrie and Watts of the Crane Company and Standard Oil Company (Indiana), respectively. The API Standard assigns a 100 F...

Palchygh Pilpilasi Oil Field

Proposed depth ranging from 1,000 to 1,900 m along seven profiles extended across the strike of the structure and encompassing both of its flanks. The spacing of profiles was 800 to 1,000 m. The appraisal drilling program was supposed to take two years (including the construction of offshore platforms). Some wells were proposed to be deviated and drilled from the existing platforms or platforms under construction at that time. The drilling program for 1956 included 12,000 meters with the remainder to be drilled in 1957. To study the KaS accumulation discovered in the northwestern area of the Neft Dashlary Oil Field, the drilling of four wells was proposed.

Uses Of Fluidized Beds

Maleic Anhydride Fluidized Bed Reactor

Cat cracker, including Exxon Research & Engineering Co., Universal Oil Products Companies, Kellogg Co., Texaco Development Corp., Gulf Research Development Co., and Shell Oil Company. Many of the companies provide designs and or licenses to operate to others. For further details, see Luckenbach, Reichle, Gladrow, and Worley, Cracking, Catalytic, in McKetta (ed.), Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design, vol. 13, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1981, pp. 1-132.

161 Analysis and Design of FRP Pultruded Structures 1611 Introduction

Truss structures and braced framed structures have been designed and constructed using thin-walled composite material fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP, commonly referred to as fiber-reinforced plastic) pultruded members for over 30 years. Pultruded structural members (referred to as pultrusions or pultruded shapes or pultruded profiles) have been used in a significant number of structures to-date, such as pedestrian bridges, vehicular bridges, building frames, stair towers, cooling towers, and walkways and platforms (Bakis et al. 2002). Pultruded members are often the materials of choice where significant corrosion and chemical resistance is required (food processing, cooling towers, offshore platforms), where electromagnetic transparency is required (electronics manufacturing, radomes), or where accessibility is limited and lightweight skeletal structures are assembled on-site (pedestrian bridges in parklands).

13 ACV and SES development in the former USSR

In addition about 1000 air cushion platforms have been constructed, mainly for oil industry support in marsh swamp areas (Fig. 1.21). About one hundred military ACV have been constructed, including the five largest amphibious landing craft in the world, called Pormornik (550 tonnes, 57.6 m, 65 knots, payload 120t), over the period 1988-94. Twenty two amphibious landing craft code named AIST by NATO (275t, 47.3 m, 70 knots, payload 90t) were constructed in the 1970s (Fig. 1.22), and sixteen medium sized LEBED amphibious landing craft (87t, 24.4 m, 50 knots cruise, payload of 35 t) during the early 1980s. The LEBED can be operated into the stern docks of large Landing Ships such as the 'Ivan Rogof' class. The USSR has also developed the largest WIG in the world, named 'Caspian Sea Monster' (Fig. 1.23).

Chapter Eight The Underground Blowout

With the casing set at less than 4,000 feet, the primary concern is that the underground blowout will fracture to the surface and create a crater. If the blowout is offshore, it is most probable that the crater will occur immediately under the drilling rig. If the productivity is high, then the crater is large and the operation is in great peril. At one operation in the Gulf Coast, several workers were burned to death when the flow fractured to the surface under the rig. At another operation in the Far East, a nine-well platform was lost when the flow fractured to the surface under the platform. At still another operation, a jackup was lost when the crater occurred under one leg. Drill ships have been lost to cratered blowouts.

2620 Lubrication of the gearbox

The oil required is different from that suitable for an engine, the conditions being quite different. Temperatures are much lower and carbonisation has not to be considered. On the other hand, the pressures to which the oil films may be subjected may be much heavier than in an engine. The instructions of makers and the advice of reputable oil companies should always be followed.

16 Raw Materials For Plastics

Today, the plastics industry is heavily integrated with the oil industry. In fact a popular view is that it would not be able to produce plastics if oil were not available. This is very different from the situation 40-50 years ago when the plastics industry was being described as a 'scavenger of raw materials'.

Dynamic Positioning Systems

Ship Dynamic Positioning Control

Dynamic positioning systems (DPS) are relatively new systems. They have been commercially available for drilling vessels, platforms, supply vessels, and mine hunters since the 1960s. Det Norske Veritas defines a dynamically positioned vessel as a vessel which maintains its position (fixed location or predetermined track) exclusively by means of active thrusters. DPS systems are also used for underwater vehicles. Most dynamic positioning systems use thrusters to maintain the vessel's position and heading while heave, pitch, and roll are not controlled by the DPS. DP systems consists of sensors (motion and environmental), actuators, and a controller (computer) with DP algorithms. As motion sensors, the following systems are used stationary satellites that can send the position of the vessel continuously (GPS, DGPS, GLONASS), coastal radar, or radio navigation systems (Loran, Decca). Hydrophones can also be used in shallow waters. A gyroscopic compass sends the yaw information. The...

Birth of the Mud Industry

In view of the patent situation, California Talc Company agreed to discontinue the sale of Plastiwate. The announcement was made in oil industry magazines that beginning March 1, 1931, Baroid* would be sold by Baroid Sales Company (a subsidiary of National Lead Company) through distributors in all areas except Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, and Texas, where the Peden Company would be the agent. Aquagel would be sold by Baroid Sales Company in essentially all oilfields of the world. George L. Ratcliffe, formerly president of California Talc Company, became general manager of Baroid Sales Company, which, through the years, has become the Baroid Division of NL Industries, Inc.

London 1 Coastal Oil Whahv6s

Mobil Oil Company Limited, Coryton occupies three adjoining sites on the mainland of Thurrock bordering the Thames and Holehaven Creek the oil refinery, a bulk distribution depot associated with the refinery, and a large research and technical services laboratory. About 800 people are employed. Crude oil is imported by sea, stored in tanks for distillation into components which are either transferred directly to storage tanks, or chemically reacted into other products. From the storage tanks holding more than 1,500,000 tonnes, the products are distributed by pipelines, sea, road, and rail.

Special Rheological Models

The rheology literature focuses on several well-known models, e.g., power law, Bingham plastic, Herschel-Bulkley, and Casson, but very often, these models are not adequate for petroleum applications. The oil industry continually improves its rheological models through detailed laboratory work, and in this section, we will describe some of the industry's specialized needs.

US Department of Energy

Ignition engine modified to become a diesel and the increase of diesel fuel prices in urban areas considerably above the price of gasoline. The oil industry for the U.S. market has a product slate optimized for gasoline while in Europe it is optimized for diesel home heating fuel. While the sale of diesel cars in the U.S. is less than 1 percent, it is about 20 percent of the German market.

Myths on accident investigation

In public was after I had given a talk to the staff of a large oil company. Someone asked why I had said so much about the actions managers should take to prevent accidents when it was well-known that most accidents were due to the carelessness or irresponsibility of the injured man or one of his fellow-workers. When I went to the airport for my plane home I felt I should check in for a journey on a time machine back to the present-day.

35 Advanced Management Techniques

Lacy et al.79 developed a database archived well data as wells were drilled, allowing construction of daily and final reports, and comparison of historical well records. Most oil companies and many drilling contractors now utilize similar data bases. This Engineering Simulator was integrated into a Drilling Command and Control System, that linked the engineering simulator to a data base and various managerial functions, and operating drilling rigs. The engineering simulator allowed the field operation to be modeled in real time, and to predict and guide the drilling operation. This Critical Drilling Facility linked the engineering simulator to the operating rig by a comprehensive video and data transmission system,8* allowing the rig crew to access expert guidance from the head office, and the office-based technical and management teams to be aware of the latest developments at the rig site.

4 Novel Drilling Systems

During World War II, improvements to the rotary rig slowed, and most novel ideas were focused toward military applications. However, after the war. many improvements in materials and equipment generated for the war effort were implemented on the rotary drilling rigs. During the 1940s and early 1950s these improvements helped the drilling industry penetrate depths greater than 20,000 ft. The late 1950s and '60s continued to see extensive improvements to the, by then firmly established, rotary drilling rig. By the end of the 1960s the record well depth with these rigs was in excess of 25,000 ft, and the number of wells drilled each year to depths greater than 15,000 ft had risen from less than ten per year to nearly 400 per year. During this time period, tremendous advancements were made in numerous established technological areas and a number of completely new technologies emerged. Because of the exceptional progress being made, there was broad interest in finding new

541 Electric Vehicle Development 19741998

At present, the great hope for the future, he believes, is the fuel cell. Hydrogen is the preferred fuel for fuel cells but its storage presents a problem. One of the ways of overcoming this problem is to convert a liquid fuel, such as methanol, into hydrogen. This was done in the 5 kW unit made by the Shell Oil Company as long ago as 1964. The unit was installed in the world's first fuel-cell powered car. Shell also produced a 300 W nett cell in 1965 which converted methanol directly into electricity, so it is not the case that this technology is new. The principal problem at the time this work was carried out was the cost of the unit. Although a number of fuel-cell powered cars

Appendix A Conversion Factors

Table A-l gives factors for converting some common US units to coherent (i.e. consistent) metric units (centimeter-gram-second), and to SI units (meter-kilogram-second). The advantage of using coherent units is that the i S units need not be converted individually when writing equations. However, the conversion of some customary US field units to coherent SI units leads to inconveniently large or small numbers. Table A-2 gives some conversion factors that may be more convenient for use on the drilling rig.

Detergent type or HD lubricating oils

Manufacturers of centrifuges have carried out a considerable amount of research work in conjunction with the oil companies on the centrifuging of basic mineral and detergent lubricating oils using three different methods of centrifuging. These are purification, clarification and purification with water washing. The following is a summary of the findings and recommendations based on the results which were obtained.

Shakers

A drilling rig in East Texas drilling a 2,800-foot well using earthen mud pits. Cuttings, for geological examination, were collected on a piece of hardware cloth at the end of the flow line. Solids control equipment was not used on this well. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, larger oil companies organized research laboratories and began exploring oil well drilling problems. They began to understand that the smaller cuttings, or particles, left in drilling fluid were also detrimental to the drilling process and another ore dressing machine was introduced from the mining industry the cone classifier. This machine, combined with the concept of a centrifugal separator taken from the dairy industry, became the hydrocyclone desander. The basic principle behind separating heavier and coarser materials from the drilling fluid is the centrifugal action of rotating the volume of the sand-laden mud to the outer limit, or periphery, of the cone. The heavier particles exit the...

14 UK legislation

Industry in general and organizations such as The Institute of Petroleum which produced a model code of safe practice6 for the oil industry. Industry, unlike the governmental organizations, concentrated much of its work on the matters associated with how hazardous areas were formed and matters associated with installation and maintenance. Individual companies also made significant contributions and, as an example of this, the RoSPA ICI Code of Practice7 covering use of electrical equipment in explosive atmospheres in the chemical industry is probably one of the finest documents of its type ever produced.

Epilogue

No text on advanced pressure control would be complete without a brief history and overview of this historical project. I am proud to have served the Kuwait Oil Company and the Kuwaiti people in their effort. I consider my involvement one of the greatest honors of my career.

Bs5750

Standards such as NS3472 and BS5750 provide the fundamental equations needed to determine stresses in steel components, regardless of their area of application. Documents such as NORSOK N-004 and API RP2A apply the relevant fundamental equations, along with appropriate factors of safety corresponding to the design limit-states for particular marine structures. NORSOK N-004 (NTS, 1998) gives state of the art specifications for designing floating and fixed marine structures. It is based on NS3472, Eurocode 3, oil company's specifications for the design of steel structures, and many of the best features from technical papers.

11411 Background

The part of the mainland within the area covered by the investigation is not residential, but primarily industrial. The two large oil refineries belonging to Shell UK Oil and Mobil Oil Company Limited are located on the riverside. The liquefied petroleum gases cylinder (LPG) filling plant of Calor Gas Limited is north of the refineries. Fisons Limited's ammonium nitrate plant is in the western part of the area.

174 Firefighting

It is inescapable that any offshore platform has to tackle an emergency with the facilities installed in the platform itself and with the on-board crew. In contrast to an onshore process plant, local emergency services cannot be called in to help. A well-trained, powerfully equipped and ably led fire service cannot be on site in just a few minutes. Some offshore platforms, and Piper was one, do have stand-by fire-fighting ships that can pump water onto the unit but this has little effect.

1180 J

For fixed offshore platform units, the design method should follow the strength level analysis guidelines in API RP 2A. The drilling and well servicing units should be able to resist the deck movement, i.e., the response of the deck to the ground motion prescribed for the design of the offshore platform. The allowable stresses for the combination of earthquake, gravity and operational loading should be limited to those basic allowables with the one-third increase as specified in AISC Part I. The computed stresses should include the primary and the secondary stress components.

Gas Turbines

The gas turbine in a combined cycle mode will be the power source through the year 2020 for most countries throughout the world. Most of the new power plants of the 1990s are and will continue to be run by gas turbines with steam turbines in a combined cycle mode. Its compactness, low weight, and multiple fuel application also make it a natural power plant for offshore platforms. Today there are gas turbines that run on natural gas, diesel fuel, naphtha, methane, crude, low-Btu gases, vaporized fuel oils, and even waste. In the 1950s and 1960s, the gas turbine was perceived as a relatively inefficient power source when compared to other power sources. Its efficiencies, compactness, and light weight made it attractive for certain applications. The limiting factor for most gas turbines has been the turbine inlet temperature. With new schemes of air cooling and breakthroughs in blade metallurgy, higher turbine temperatures have been achieved.

Gas Turbine Products

Stewart & Stevenson gas turbine packages are installed around the world in virtually every type of application. There are portable and permanent application located on land, offshore platforms, and aboard ships of the U.S. and foreign Navies. These power plants provide reliable power and fuel-efficient operation. Today, there are over 740 Stewart & Stevenson gas turbine systems in operation worldwide.

Compressors

Continuous-Flow Compressors Continuous-flow compressors are machines where the flow is continuous, unlike positive displacement machines where the flow is fluctuating. Continuous-flow compressors are also classified as turbomachines. These types of machines are widely used in the chemical and petroleum industry for many services. They are also used extensively in many other industries such as the iron and steel industry, pipeline boosters, and on offshore platforms for reinjection compressors. Continuous-flow machines are usually much smaller in size and produce much less vibration than their counterpart, positive displacement units.

Bseries

The 320 mm bore 360 mm stroke B-series engine was conceived as a compact, heavy fuel-burning main engine and launched in 1986 with special features facilitating operation on lower price, poor quality fuel oils. The design's tolerance of fuel quality has been demonstrated by an oil rig installation running on crude direct from the well after degassing. A nominal rating of 360 kW cylinder at 750 rev min was initially quoted but some of the first engines sold were contracted at around 400 kW cylinder, equivalent to a 10 per cent overload.

Engineering Design

Petroleum engineers are traditionally involved in activities known in the oil industry as the front end of the petroleum fuel cycle (petroleum is either liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons derived from natural deposits reservoirs in the earth). These front end activities are namely exploration (locating and proving out the new geological provinces with petroleum reservoirs that may be exploited in the future), and development (the systematic drilling, well completion, and production of economically producible reservoirs). Once the raw petroleum fluids (e.g., crude oil and natural gas) have been produced from the earth, the back end of the fuel cycle takes the produced raw petroleum fluids and refines these fluids into useful products.

Synopsis

Though the solid-liquid hydrocyclone has been established for most of the 20th century, satisfactory liquid-liquid separation performance did not arrive until the 1980s. The offshore oil industry had a need for compact, robust and reliable equipment for removing finely divided contaminant oil from water. This need was satisfied by a significantly differ

Early applications

The first use of DRA's in the oil industry was to reduce pressure loss during pumping of fluids downhole to fracture tight formations. The quantities of DRA used are proportionally large but the savings are substantial. Data published on one DRA-kerosine solution with 600 weight ppm of DRA in kerosine showed an 80 drag reduction over untreated kerosine.

Bsen 50016 1995

The attitude in the UK (and elsewhere) began to change as the North Sea oil industry developed because much of the drilling equipment used could only be protected by pressurization, and the technique had been developed to a great degree in the USA as evidenced by its inclusion in the National Electrical Code.2 Coincident with this, entrepreneurial activity in the UK led to a situation where the control equipment for pressurization became available 'off the shelf', rather than having to be developed individually for each use (which had largely been the case historically). These changes, together with similar changes in attitude in the other countries of Europe led to the first Standard being produced for apparatus with protection type 'p' and subsequently the protection concept became one of the Standard protection concepts, rather than an installation matter only.

178 Additives

Additives are substances introduced, in small proportions, into fuels to enhance their performance or to offset the effects of certain undesirable properties. It all started in the early nineteen-twenties when the demand for fuel was expanding rapidly and could no longer be satisfied by straight distilled hydrocarbons. Oil companies started to crack the heavier fractions, to break down their molecules into lighter ones and thus increase the supply of petrol. Cracked products of that time tended to be unstable, reacting with oxygen to form gummy deposits causing problems such as blocked carburettor jets and filters. Consequently the first additives were anti-oxidants. Because of the impending increasingly strict legal requirements regarding exhaust emissions and fuel economy, additive technology is now being taken more seriously than hitherto. Even so, at the time of writing, only three oil companies in the UK, handling no more than 30 of the fuel sold there, are marketing additive...

8583 Summary

The futures exchanges provide financial integrity to the commodity markets and guarantee the performance of their contracts. This is not an unimportant point, for, in the U.S., no energy futures contract has ever defaulted. Performance is guaranteed by brokers, the clearinghouse, and the exchange. All transactions are matched and offset at settlement. Although there is a perception among the public that futures exchanges exist primarily for speculation, hedging is their true function. The creditworthiness of the exchanges and their standardized, fungible contracts is essential to off-exchange trading, where counter-party performance is a key component of swaps agreements. In off-exchange transactions, the market maker assumes the functions of an exchange. If a transaction unravels, the market maker must perform. Large banks, major oil companies, and large traders not only can make a market, but because of their creditworthiness and performance capability, their customers have...

1723Additives

Even so, there is no incentive for the oil companies to use additives unless they are cost-effective. Some are sold in the after-market but, unless the purchaser knows in detail the content of his fuel, he could be either paying for products that do not suit it or simply adding to what is already present at saturation level, in which event the extra will make little or no difference. A possible exception is where a commercial vehicle operator has a large residual stock of fuel bought in bulk during the summer, which he needs to convert by adding anti-wax additives for winter use.

Direct Liquefaction

Direct liquefaction was developed in the 1930s by Bergius and collaborators and involved reacting pulverized coal or coal oil slurries with gaseous hydrogen at high pressures and temperatures. It was used extensively in Germany during World War II and in the former Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia for several years after the war. Plants were also constructed in Japan and Great Britain but on a much smaller scale. These plants were either destroyed during the war or shut down shortly after because they were not economical to operate. Direct liquefaction research and development continued after the war and increased significantly after the oil crisis in the 1970s. Direct liquefaction research funding essentially ended in the mid- to latter 1980s. The funding for the research came from a host of agencies, companies, and states, and examples of funding sources include (but the list is obviously not inclusive) the DOE and its predecessors, the Office of Coal Research (OCR) and Energy...

851 Forward Markets

Liquidity is the ease with which the commodity can be bought and sold in the market. Performance refers to the ability of the market players to comply with the terms of the contract. The contract must be satisfied through physical delivery or cash settlement at the time of delivery. A wide range of players actively participate in the forward oil markets, including oil traders, major producers, refiners, investment banks, and major oil companies. These parties all provide liquidity to the market by guaranteeing performance.

Mud Weight

_.'andt developed these specifically for drilling rigs. They can be positioned to disperse dangerous gases or fumes or bothersome insects. TIil-v increase personnel comfort in land and offshore areas. Heavy duty guards meet OS HA specifications for safety. Non-sparking aluminum blades move large volumes of air at minimum noise level. Explosion-proof electric motors, starters. Power input 2 i0v or -I60v i-phaso AC. Brandt Blowers for Drilling Rigs

Electric Motors

Continuous duty electric motors are an integral part of the drilling rigs' solids control and processing systems. Centrifugal pumps that feed hydrocyclones, circulate mud for mixing, transfer mud to and from reserve, and also into the trip tank, are powered by electric motors. Shale shakers, mud cleaners, and pit agitators are also driven by electric motors while they rotate centrifuges.

Example 2

The rock formation to be drilled is classified as extremely hard, and it is anticipated that 10 ft hr will be the maximum possible drilling rate. The mud weight is to be 16.2 lb gal. The drilling rig has a National Supply Company, triplex mud pump Model 10-P-130 available. The details of this pump are given in Table 4-112 (also see the section titled Mud Pumps for more details). Because this is a deviation control run, the shorter two motor section turbine motor will be used.

Brian Appleton

Successive ruptures some 30 minutes and 60 minutes later of risers on the other two gas pipelines, to the gas gathering and the Claymore platforms. Apart from the drilling rig end structure, the Piper platform was totally destroyed within a few hours, its equipment and accommodation falling into the sea which was about 150 m deep (Figure 17.1).

Power Transmission

In nearly all mechanical power applications in the oil and gas industry it is necessary to transmit the power generated by a prime mover to an operation (e.g., drawworks of a drilling rig, or a production pumping system). The transmission of rotary power to such operation elements is carried out by a power transmission system. Mechanical power transmission is typically carried out by power betting systems, chain systems, gear systems and by hydraulic systems, or some combination of these three 1,5 .

Trigger pull

Bed of a motortruck. 'trsk .kran truck-mounted drill rig mech eng A drilling rig mounted on a lorry or caterpillar tracks. 'trsk maUnt-sd 'dril .rig truck-tractor See tractor. 'trsk trak-tsr true-boiling-point analysis chem eng A standard laboratory technique used to predict the refining qualities of crude petroleum gives distillation cuts for gasoline, kerosine, distillate (diesel) fuel, cracking, and lube distillate stocks. Also known as true-boiling-point distillation. 'trU 'boil-ig point s.nal-s-sss true-boiling-point distillation See true-boiling-point analysis. 'trU 'boil-ig pTTint .dis-ts.la-shsn

Sumhole

Slim-hole drilling can reduce deep drilling costs by several means including higher penetration rates since less rock is removed from the hole and reduced casing costs since smaller diameter pipe is used. Additional savings are realized by the use of smaller drilling rigs, smaller mud and cement volumes, and smaller drilling sites. casing string if unanticipated high-pressure or lost-circulation zones are encountered). Well control is a significant concern in slim holes because even small gas kicks expand rapidly in a narrow annular space, covering a significant portion of the wellbore and arriving at the surface in a very short time. The vast majority of drilling contractors are not equipped to economically drill a slim wellbore. Few oil-field drilling contractors own small drilling rigs because of the perceived limited applications for the technology, and the sporadic utilization of such equipment. Figure 3-4S is a photograph (a joint venture between the Swedish government a group...

Cylinder oils

The results of shipboard trials and other investigations by a leading lubricating oil company indicated that a 70 BN SAE 50 cylinder oil, formulated with the right technology, is the most cost-effective way of providing cylinder lubrication for the majority of low speed engines.

4370 5570 6590 7090

Pollutant emissions where no product is being made from the combustion of the vented gases. While the process may only be practical and economic in some limited cases at present, flare gas recovery (see schematic in Figure 15.55) may be a viable option for some chemical plants. A flare gas recovery system (see Fig. 15.56) was installed at Lion Oil Company's refinery in El Dorado, AR 98 . The system is successfully being used to reduce plant emissions by capturing some of the vent gases that were previously flared and using those gases as a fuel.

Acknowledgements

The author would also like to acknowledge his use of material from Refining Process Safety Booklets of the Amoco Oil Company (formerly the American Oil Company, Chicago), in particular Booklet No. 4, Safe Ups and Downs of Refinery Units, Copyright 1960 and 1963 The American Oil Company and Booklet No. 9, Safe Operation of Air, Ammonia and Ammonium Nitrate Plants, Copyright 1964 The American Oil Company. Quoted material is used with the permission of the

Stratified Sampling

We might want to do stratified sampling of an oil company's properties to assess compliance with a stack monitoring protocol. If there were 3 large, 30 medium-sized, and 720 small properties, these three sizes define three strata. One could sample these three strata proportionately that is, one third of each, which would be 1 large, 10 medium, and 240 small facilities. One could examine all the large facilities, half of the medium facilities, and a random sample of 50 small ones. Obviously, there are many possible sampling plans, each having a different precision and a different cost. We seek a plan that is low in cost and high in information.

Waste Disposal Costs

Wastewater disposal costs depend on the area and, of course, the quality of the wastewater. In one plant, the wastewater was sold to an oil company for secondary oil recovery. However, the cost of treating and filtering the wastewater far exceeded the revenues from the oil company.

Application To Pumps

As most oil production is located in remote areas, the packaged gas turbine driver has become increasingly popular. Figure 9 shows a typical 3300-bhp (2460-brake kW) split-shaft gas-turbine-driven centrifugal water flood pump package. A cutaway view of a typical 1100-hhp (820-brake kW) gas turbine is shown in Figure 10 note the reduction gearing at the exhaust end for direct driving of a pump. Supporting systems, such as starter, lubrication oil pumps, governor, and fuel oil pumps, are driven off the accessory pods located at the air inlet end. Offshore platform installations require drivers with a minimum vibration as well as small, unbalanced inertial forces. The gas turbine fits both of these descriptions very well.

91 Introduction

Because far greater efficiencies and higher throughputs can be obtained before flooding occurs, centrifugal packed bed contactors are finding favour and are replacing ordinary packed columns in situations where compactness is important, or where it is desirable to reduce the holdup of materials undergoing processing because of their hazardous properties. An important application is the use of inert gases in the desorption of oxygen from sea water in order to reduce its corrosiveness in North Sea oil rigs the sea water is used as a coolant in heat exchangers. In addition, centrifugal contactors for liquid-liquid extraction processes now have important applications discussed in Chapter 13. These are additional areas where centrifugal fields, and the employment of centrifuges, is gaining in importance.

859 Banking Aspects

Multinational banks and energy companies have always had a strong business relationship due to the large capital needs and worldwide operations of the oil industry. Banks have provided services related to taxation, cash management, and foreign exchange and interest rate risk management. Many energy transactions are not new business, but are merely renewals of funding for existing facilities these capital requirements are high and provide profitable margins for lending banks. Moreover, relationship banks can offer cross-border financial services, including currency swaps, as part of any commodity-linked transaction.

Cell Test

Residual strength, because the sand particles have been cemented together. The sand will become very stiff, but brittle. It appears to be very strong, and it is, but as soon as the structure has been broken, the strength falls down to a much lower value. In the construction of two offshore platforms near the coast of Western Australia this has caused large problems, because the shear strength of the soil was reduced very severely after the driving of the foundation piles through the soil.

32 Top Drives

Some high-angle wells offshore require the use of top drives to rotate and circulate at oil times.32 Top drives have aiabled planners to increase the number of highly-deviated wells reachiag far from offshore platforms. Although it is unquestionable that significant time will be saved wbsn drilling each well, these wefl-by-well savings are overshadowed by the enormous savings that may re achieved by developing the field from a lesser number of platforms. Mobil, for example, has invesi-gated high-angle drilling in the Statfjord field,33 and concluded that it might have been possible a develop the Statfjord field from two, instead of the three concrete gravity platforms actually installed.34 With the cost of such a platform at between S1.5 to 2 billion, the savings is obvio s. Similar cost reductions have been reported from other fields, including Alaska's Endicott field where the Wall Street Journal reported on September 14, 1984 that two artificial islands would be needid instead of...