## Table of physical constants and conversion units

 Absolute zero temperature —273.2°C Acceleration due to gravity, g f 9.807 m/s2 Avogadro's number, NA 6.022 x 1023 Base of natural logarithms, e 2.718 Boltzmann's constant, kxjs 1.381 x 10—23 J/K Faraday's constant, kxjs 9.648 x 104 C/mol Gas constant, Rx/r 8.314 J/mol/K Permeability of vacuum, ¡x0 1.257 x 10—6 H/m Permittivity of vacuum, e0 8.854 x 10—12 F/m Planck's constant, h\jf 6.626 x 10—34 J/s Velocity of light in vacuum, c f 2.998 x 108 m/s Volume of perfect gas at STP 22.41 x 10—3 m3/mol Conversion of units Angle, 9x[r 1 rad 57.30° Density, pf 1 lb/ft3 16.03 kg/m3 Diffusion coefficient, Di{r 1 cm3/s 1.0 x 10—4m2/s Force, F1{r 1 kgf 9.807 N 1 lbf 4.448 N 1 dyne 1.0 x 10—5 N Length, 11{r 1 ft 304.8 mm 1 inch 25.40 mm 1 A 0.1 nm Mass, M1fr 1 tonne 1000 kg 1 short ton 908 kg 1 long ton 1107 kg 1 lb mass 0.454 kg Specific heat, Cp 1 cal/g.°C 4.188 kJ/kg.°C Btu/lb.°F 4.187 kJ/kg.°C

xiv Conversion units Conversion of units

Stress intensity, Surface energy, y\jr Temperature, T f Thermal conductivity, X f

Volume, V f

Viscosity, q f

1 cal/s.cm.°C 1 Btu/h.ft.°F 1 Imperial gall 1 US gall 1 poise 1 lb ft.s

1.10 MN/m3/2 1 mJ/m2 0.556°K 418.8 W/m.°C 1.731 W/m.°C 4.546 x 10

Conversion of units - stress and pressure*

MN/m2

dyn/cm2 lb/in2

kgf/mm2 bar long ton/in2

MN/m2 dyn/cm2 lb/in2 kgf/mm2 bar long ton/in2

10-7

1.54 108

2.24 x 103

0.102

1.54 x 102

6.48 x 10-2 6.48 x 10-9 4.46 x 10-4 63.5 x 10-2 6.48 x 10-3 1

Conversion of units - energy*

 J erg cal eV Btu ft lbf J 1 107 0.239 6.24 x 1018 9.48 x 10- 4 0.738 erg 10-7 1 2.39 x 10-8 6.24 x 1011 9.48 x 10- -11 7.38 x 10-8 cal 4.19 4.19 x 107 1 2.61 x 1019 3.97 x 10- 3 3.09 eV 1.60 x 10-19 1.60 x 10-12 3.38 x 10-20 1 1.52 x 10- 22 1.18 x 10-19 Btu 1.06 x ; 103 1.06 x 1010 2.52 x 102 6.59 x 1021 1 7.78 x 102 ft lbf 1.36 1.36 x 107 0.324 8.46 x 1018 1.29 x 10- 3 1 Conversion of units - power* kW (kJ/s) erg/s hp ft lbf/s kW (kJ/s) 1 10-10 1.34 7.38 x 102 erg/s 10-10 1 1.34 x 10- 10 7.38 x 10-8 hp 7.46 x 10-1 7.46 x 109 1 5.50 x 102 ft lbf/s 1.36 x 10-3 1.36 x 107 1.82 x 10- 3 1

*To convert row unit to column unit, multiply by the number at the column-row intersection, thus 1MN/m2 = 10 bar

*To convert row unit to column unit, multiply by the number at the column-row intersection, thus 1MN/m2 = 10 bar

Chapter 1

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