Table of physical constants and conversion units

Physical constants in SI units

Absolute zero temperature

—273.2°C

Acceleration due to gravity, g f

9.807 m/s2

Avogadro's number, NA

6.022 x 1023

Base of natural logarithms, e

2.718

Boltzmann's constant, kxjs

1.381 x 10—23 J/K

Faraday's constant, kxjs

9.648 x 104 C/mol

Gas constant, Rx/r

8.314 J/mol/K

Permeability of vacuum, ¡x0

1.257 x 10—6 H/m

Permittivity of vacuum, e0

8.854 x 10—12 F/m

Planck's constant, h\jf

6.626 x 10—34 J/s

Velocity of light in vacuum, c f

2.998 x 108 m/s

Volume of perfect gas at STP

22.41 x 10—3 m3/mol

Conversion of units

Angle, 9x[r

1 rad

57.30°

Density, pf

1 lb/ft3

16.03 kg/m3

Diffusion coefficient, Di{r

1 cm3/s

1.0 x 10—4m2/s

Force, F1{r

1 kgf

9.807 N

1 lbf

4.448 N

1 dyne

1.0 x 10—5 N

Length, 11{r

1 ft

304.8 mm

1 inch

25.40 mm

1 A

0.1 nm

Mass, M1fr

1 tonne

1000 kg

1 short ton

908 kg

1 long ton

1107 kg

1 lb mass

0.454 kg

Specific heat, Cp

1 cal/g.°C

4.188 kJ/kg.°C

Btu/lb.°F

4.187 kJ/kg.°C

xiv Conversion units Conversion of units

Stress intensity, Surface energy, y\jr Temperature, T f Thermal conductivity, X f

Volume, V f

Viscosity, q f

1 cal/s.cm.°C 1 Btu/h.ft.°F 1 Imperial gall 1 US gall 1 poise 1 lb ft.s

1.10 MN/m3/2 1 mJ/m2 0.556°K 418.8 W/m.°C 1.731 W/m.°C 4.546 x 10

Conversion of units - stress and pressure*

MN/m2

dyn/cm2 lb/in2

kgf/mm2 bar long ton/in2

MN/m2 dyn/cm2 lb/in2 kgf/mm2 bar long ton/in2

10-7

1.54 108

2.24 x 103

0.102

1.54 x 102

6.48 x 10-2 6.48 x 10-9 4.46 x 10-4 63.5 x 10-2 6.48 x 10-3 1

Conversion of units - energy*

J

erg

cal

eV

Btu

ft lbf

J

1

107

0.239

6.24

x 1018

9.48

x 10-

4

0.738

erg

10-7

1

2.39 x 10-8

6.24

x 1011

9.48

x 10-

-11

7.38 x 10-8

cal

4.19

4.19 x 107

1

2.61

x 1019

3.97

x 10-

3

3.09

eV

1.60 x

10-19 1.60 x 10-12

3.38 x 10-20

1

1.52

x 10-

22

1.18 x 10-19

Btu

1.06 x

; 103 1.06 x 1010

2.52 x 102

6.59

x 1021

1

7.78 x 102

ft lbf

1.36

1.36 x 107

0.324

8.46

x 1018

1.29 x 10-

3

1

Conversion of units - power*

kW (kJ/s)

erg/s

hp

ft lbf/s

kW (kJ/s)

1

10-10

1.34

7.38 x 102

erg/s

10-10

1

1.34 x 10-

10

7.38 x 10-8

hp

7.46 x 10-1

7.46 x 109

1

5.50 x 102

ft lbf/s

1.36 x 10-3

1.36 x 107

1.82 x 10-

3

1

*To convert row unit to column unit, multiply by the number at the column-row intersection, thus 1MN/m2 = 10 bar

*To convert row unit to column unit, multiply by the number at the column-row intersection, thus 1MN/m2 = 10 bar

Chapter 1

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