Making metal foams

Nine distinct process-routes have been developed to make metal foams, of which five are now established commercially. They fall into four broad classes: those in which the foam is formed from the vapor phase; those in which the foam is electrodeposited from an aqueous solution; those which depend on liquid-state processing; and those in which the foam is created in the solid state. Each method can be used with a small subset of metals to create a porous material with a limited range of relative densities and cell sizes. Some produce open-cell foams, others produce foams in which the majority of the cells are closed. The products differ greatly in quality and in price which, today, can vary from $7 to $12 000 per kg.

This chapter details the nine processes. Contact details for suppliers can be found in Chapter 17.

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