211 Literature on the manufacture of metal foams

General

Astro Met, Inc. Ampormat Porous Materials, Astro Met, Inc., Cinncinnati.

Davies, G.J. and Zhen, S. (1983) Metallic foams: their production, properties, and applications.

Journal of Materials Science 18 1899-1911. Banhart, J. and Baumeister, J. (1988) Production methods for metallic foams. In Shwartz, D.S., Shih, D.S., Evans, A.G. and Wadley, H.N.G. (eds) (1998) Porous and Cellular Materials for Structural Application, Materials Research Society Proceedings, Vol. 521, MRS, Warrendale, PA, USA.

a) Metal - Hydrogen binary phase diagram

Pressure, P

Pressure, P

Metal wt% H2

b) Directional solidification b) Directional solidification

Metal Foams
Heating
Figure 2.10 Gas-metal eutectic solidification for the manufacture of GASARs

Melt gas injection

Jin et al. (1990) Method of producing lightweight foamed metal. US Patent No. 4,973,358.

Jin et al. (1992) Stabilized metal foam body. US Patent No. 5, 112, 697.

Jin et al. (1993) Lightweight metal with isolated pores and its production. US Patent No. 5,221,324.

Kenny et al. (1994) Process for shape casting of particle stabilized metal foam. US Patent No. 5,281,251.

Niebyski et al. (1974) Preparation of metal foams with viscosity increasing gases. US Patent No. 3,816,952.

Sang et al. (1994) Process for producing shaped slabs of particle stabilized foamed metal. US Patent No. 5,334,236.

Thomas et al. (1997) Particle-stabilized metal foam and its production. US Patent No. 5,622,542. Particle decomposition in melts

Akiyama et al. (1987) Foamed metal and method of producing same. US Patent No. 4,713,277.

Elliot, J.C. (1956) Method of producing metal foam. US Patent No. 2,751,289.

Gergely, V. and Clyne, T.W. (1998) The effect of oxide layers on gas-generating hydride particles during production of aluminum foams. In Shwartz, D.S., Shih, D.S., Evans, A.G. and Wadley, H.N.G. (eds) Porous and Cellular Materials for Structural Application, Materials Research Society Proceedings, Vol. 521, MRS, Warrendale, PA, USA.

Miyoshi, T., Itoh, M., Akiyama, S. and Kitahara, A. (1998) Aluminum foam, ALPORAS, the production process, properties and applications, Shinko Wire Company, Ltd, New Tech Prod. Div., Amagasaki, Japan.

Speed, S.F. (1976) Foaming of metal by the catalyzed and controled decomposition of zirconium hydride and titanium hydride. US Patent No. 3,981,720.

Particle decomposition in semisolids

Baumeister, J. (1988) Methods for manufacturing foamable metal bodies. US Patent 5,151,246.

Falahati, A. (1997) Machbarkeitsstudie zur Herstellung von Eisenbasisschaum, Master's thesis, Technical University, Vienna.

Yu, C.-J. and Eifert, H. (1998) Metal foams. Advanced Materials & Processes November, 45-47.

MEPURA. (1995) Alulight. Metallpulver GmbH. Brannau-Ranshofen, Austria.

Solidification in open-cell molds

ERG (1998) Duocel aluminum foam. ERG Corporate Literature and Reports, 29 September. <http://ergaerospace.com/lit.html> i/f

ERG (1998) Duocel physical properties. ERG Corporate Literature and Reports, 29 September. <http://ergaerospace.com/lit.html> i/f

H2/metal eutectic solidification

Sharpalov, Yu (1993) Method for manufacturing porous articles. US Patent No. 5,181,549.

Sharpalov. (1994) Porous metals. MRS Bulletin, April: 24-28.

Zheng, Y., Sridhar, S. and Russell, K.C. (1996) Controled porosity alloys through solidification processing: a modeling study. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 371: 365-398.

Vapor (electro) deposition on cellular preforms

Babjak et al. (1990) Method of forming nickel foam. US Patent No. 4,957,543.

Entrapped gas expansion

Elzey, D.M. and Wadley, H.N.G. (1998) The influence of internal pore pressure during roll forming of structurally porous metals. In Porous and Cellular Materials for Structural Applications, MRS, Warrendale, PA, USA.

Kearns, M.W., Blekinsop, P.A., Barber, A.C. and Farthing, T.W. (1988) Manufacture of a novel porous metal. The International Journal of Powder Metallurgy 24: 59-64.

Kearns, M.W., Blekinsop, P.A., Barber, A.C. and Farthing, T.W. (1988) Novel porous titanium. Paper presented at Sixth World Conference on Titanium, Cannes, France.

Martin, R.L. and Lederich, R.J. (1991) Porous core/BE TI 6-4 development for aerospace structures. In Advances in Powder Metallurgy: Proceeding of the 1991 Powder Metallurgy Conference and Exposition, Powder Metallurgy Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Schwartz, D.S. and Shih, D.S. (1998) Titanium foams made by gas entrappment. In Shwartz, D.S., Shih, D.S., Evans, A.G. and Wadley, H.N.G. (eds) Porous and Cellular Materials for Structural Application, Materials Research Society Proceedings, Vol. 521, MRS, Warrendale PA, USA.

Hollow sphere consolidation

Drury, W.J., Rickles, S.A. Sanders, T.H. and Cochran, J.K. (1989) Deformation energy absorption characteristics of a metal/ceramic cellular solid. In Proceedings of TMS Conference on Light Weight Alloys for Aerospace Applications, TMS-AIME, Warrendale, PA, USA.

Kendall, J.M., Lee, M.C. and Wang, T.A. (1982) Metal shell technology based upon hollow jet instability. Journal of Vacuum Science Technology 20, 1091-1093.

Lee et al. (1991) Method and apparatus for producing microshells. US Patent No. 5,055,240.

Sypeck, D.S., Parrish, P.A. and Wadley, H.N.G. (1998) Novel hollow powder porous structures. In Porous and Cellular Materials for Structural Applications, Materials Research Society Proceeding, Vol. 521, MRS, Warrendale, PA, USA.

Torobin (1983) Method and apparatus for producing hollow metal microspheres and micro-spheroids. US Patent No. 4,415,512.

Uslu, C., Lee, K.J. Sanders, T.H. and Cochran, J.K. (1997) Ti-6AI-4V hollow sphere foams. In Synthesis/Processing of Light Weight Metallic Materials II, TMS, Warrendale, PA, USA.

Wang et al. (1984) Apparatus for forming a continuous lightweight multicell material. US Patent No. 4,449,901.

Wang et al. (1982) Method and apparatus for producing gas-filled hollow spheres. US Patent No. 4,344,787.

Co-compaction or casting of two materials, one leachable

De Ping, H.E., Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, No. 2, Sipailu, Nanjing 210096, PR China ([email protected])

Chapter 3

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