Kurt E Sickafus

Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has, in three decades time, become a mainstay in the repertoire of characterization techniques for materials scientists. TEM's strong cards are its high lateral spatial resolution (better than 0.2 nm point-to-point on some instruments) and its capability to provide both image and diffraction information from a single sample. In addition, the highly energetic beam of electrons used in TEM interacts with sample matter to produce characteristic radiation and...

Sample

Figure 3 Typical beam path configuration for collecting an FTIR spectrum using an attenuated total reflectance element Iq is the incident infrared beam, is the exiting beam. (such as an in situ measurement of a thin film in the deposition chamber) but permit the controlled heating of a sample, then emission methods provide a means of examining these materials. Infrared microscopes can focus the beam down to a 20-(im spot size for microprob-ing in either the transmission or reflection mode....

50

Figure 5 Bragg-Brentano diffraction pattern for magnetic media used in a demonstration of 1-Gb inz magnetic recording.9 The lines show a deconvolution of the data into individual diffraction peaks, which are identified. In most thin-film XRD analyses, depth-dependent structural information is not obtained, but recendy such measurements have been performed using a grazing incidence geometry.11 Since the refractive index for X rays1'3 is less than 1, X rays experience total external reflection at...

133

In Cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis, electron-beam bombardment of a solid placed in vacuum causes emission of photons (in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges) due to the recombination of electron hole pairs generated by the incident energetic electrons. The signal provides a means for CL microscopy (i.e., CL images are displayed on a CRT) and spectroscopy (i.e., luminescence spectra from selected areas of the sample are obtained) analysis of luminescent materials using electron...

Info

Typical detection limits (ppb) for ICP-OES (using a pneumatic nebulizer for sample introduction) of the most sensitive emission line between 175 nm and 850 nm for each element. Typical elemental detection limits are listed in Table 1. The detection limit is the concentration that produces the smallest signal that can be distinguished from background emission fluctuations. The continuum background is produced via radiative recombination of electrons and ions (M ++ e M+ hv or M++ e + e > M + e...

202 239

Figures 6 and 7 Mass spectra acquired from a commercial photoresist, using positive- and negative-ion detection, respectively. using conventional single-laser LIMS and the PAI configuration, respectively. The single-laser spectrum in Figure 8 exhibits primarily the Zn+ and Se+ signals, and weak signals for Cr+ and Fe+. The high background signal level following the intense Se signal is related to detector saturation. The ablator laser irradiance for this spectrum was estimated to be > 1010 W...

The Mass Spectrum

Figure 6 Typical secondary ion mass spectrum obtained from high-purity silicon using an oxygen ion beam. Major ion peaks are identified in the spectrum. Figure 6 Typical secondary ion mass spectrum obtained from high-purity silicon using an oxygen ion beam. Major ion peaks are identified in the spectrum. of the major components of the sample (silicon), or atmospheric species (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, etc.) remaining in the high-vacuum sample chamber. Many of these peaks are...

1340 1291 1242 1103 1144 1099 1048 997 948 Wavenumber

Figure 2 Spectral parameters typically used in band shape analysis of an FTIR spectrum peak position, integrated peak area, and FWHM. icon is tetrahedrally coordinated with four bridging oxygen atoms. Even though the bond angles are distorted slightly to produce the random glassy structure, this spectrum is quite similar to that obtained from crystalline quartz, because most features in the FTIR spectrum are the result of nearest neighbor interactions. In crystalline materials the many...

Albert J Bevolo

Common Modes of Analysis and Examples Comparison With Other Techniques Reflected Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (REELS) has elemental sensitivities on the order of a few tenths of a percent, phase discrimination at the few-percent level, operator controllable depth resolution from several nm to 0.07 nm, and a lateral resolution as low as 100 nm. REELS can detect any element from hydrogen to uranium and can discriminate between various phases,1 such as SnO and Sn02, or diamond and graphite....

Jee Baglin

Elastic recoil spectrometry (ERS) is used for the specific detection of hydrogen ( H, 2H) in surface layers of thickness up to approximately 1 im, and the determination of the concentration profile for each species as a function of depth below the sample's surface.1,2 When carefully used, the technique is nondestructive, absolute, fast, and independent of the host matrix and its chemical bonding structure. Although it requires an accelerator source of MeV helium ions, the instrumentation is...

Dale E Newbury

Electron Probe X-Ray Microanalysis (EPMA) is a spatially resolved, quantitative elemental analysis technique based on the generation of characteristic X rays by a focused beam of energetic electrons.1-3 EPMA is used to measure the concentrations of elements (beryllium to the actinides) at levels as low as 100 parts per million (ppm) and to determine lateral distributions by mapping. The modern EPMA instrument consists of several key components 1 An electron-optical column capable of forming a...

122 Optical Scatterometry

GASPAR, K.C. HICKMAN, AND S.D. WILSON Basic Principles and Applications Comparison to Other Techniques Many technologies involve the need to monitor the surface topology of materials. First the topology itself may be of direct interest. Second, topology is usually strongly influenced by the processing steps used to produce the surface characterizing the topology therefore can serve as a process monitor. Angle-resolved characterization of light scattered from a...

John C Huneke And Wojciech Vieth

Sample Preparation and Analytical Protocol Glow-Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) is a mass spectrometric analytical technique primarily used to measure trace level impurities in conducting or semiconducting solids. It can also be used, but less commonly, for elemental depth profile analyses. The primary advantages of GDMS are its sensitivity (ppt detection limits in some cases) its quantitative accuracy (20 on average), achieved without complicated standardization procedures and its ability...

Donald E Savage

Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED) is a technique for probing the surface structures of solids in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Since it is a diffraction-based technique, it is sensitive to order in solids and is ideally suited for the study of clean, well-ordered single-crystal surfaces. In special cases it can be used to study clean polycrystalline samples as well. It gives essentially no information on the structure of amorphous surfaces, which makes it unsuitable for use on...

In A

Where r is the resolving power, X is the wavelength of light used, and NA is the numerical aperture of the system. The wavelength is taken to be 0.55 M-m when using white light. The use of ultraviolet microscopy effectively doubles the resolving power, but the lenses must be made of quartz and photographic methods or image converter tubes must be used to image the specimen. The maximum theoretical limit of resolving power is currently about 0.2 p.m, using white light and conventional light...

Epoxy

12 8 126 12.4 12.2 12.0 118 DISTANCE (mm) Figure 7 Lateral profiles of carbon and lithium measured by nuclear reaction analysis. The sample was a lithium alloy mounted in epoxy. As the ion beam was scanned across the epoxy-metal interface, the C signal dropped and the Li signal increased.12 Figure 8 Profiles of 30Si implanted at 10 MeV into Ge measured by the 30Si (p, y) 31P resonant nuclear reaction.13 the metal and when in the epoxy, they also monitored the 12C (3He, p) l4N reaction as a...

Na

Figure 3 Bright-field (a) and dark-field (b) STEM images of crushed ceramic particles dispersed on a holey carbon film supported on an electron microscope grid (shown at the right). quality microanalysis. For TEM STEM and SEM STEM systems using thermionic electron sources (tungsten wire or LaBg), electron probes having diameters of 10-30 nm (measured as full width at half maximum) carry about 1 nA, and may be used for imaging and analysis. Smaller probes may be used for imaging, but the current...

Filippo Radicati Di Brozolo

Laser ionization mass spectrometry or laser microprobing (LIMS) is a microanalyt-ical technique used to rapidly characterize the elemental and, sometimes, molecular composition of materials. It is based on the ability of short high-power laser pulses (-10 ns) to produce ions from solids. The ions formed in these brief pulses are analyzed using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The quasi-simultaneous collection of all ion masses allows the survey analysis of unknown materials. The main...

Barry J Streusand

Basic Principles and Instrumentation The importance of the electrical and physical properties of materials has strained the limits of characterization techniques in general, and elemental analysis techniques in particular. This includes not only the analysis of surfaces, films, and bulk materials, but also of the chemicals, gases, and equipment used to form them. Often properties of a material are affected by doping levels in the 101* range, which means characterization at the...

Materials Characterization Series

Richard Brundle and Charles A. Evans, Jr. Series Titles Encychpedia of Materials Characterization, C. Richard Brundle, Charles A. Evans, Jr., and Shaun Wilson Characterization of Metals and Alloys, Paul.H. Holloway and P. N. Vaidyanathan Characterization of Ceramics, Ronald E. Loehman Characterization of Polymers, Ned J. Chou, Stephen P. Kowalczyk, Ravi Saraf, and Ho-Ming Tong Characterization in Silicon Processing, Yale Strausser Characterization in Compound Semiconductor...

Ting C Huang

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is a nondestructive method used for elemental analysis of materials. An X-ray source is used to irradiate the specimen and to cause the elements in the specimen to emit (or fluoresce) their characteristic X rays. A detector system is used to measure the positions of the fluorescent X-ray peaks for qualitative identification of the elements present, and to measure the intensities of the peaks for quantitative determination of the composition. All elements but ow-Z...

Jeffrey B Bindell

Physical Basis and Primary Modes of Operation Traditionally, the first instrument that would come to mind for small scale materials characterization would be the optical microscope. The optical microscope offered the scientist a first look at most samples and could be used to routinely document the progress of an investigation. As the sophistication of investigations increased, the optical microscope often has been replaced by instrumentation having superior spatial resolution or depth of...

16

Figure 3 Aluminum composition dependence of Eq of Ga AI As at 300 K (solid line). GaAlInPAs lattice-matched to GaAs. The alloy composition x can be evaluated with a precision of Ax 0.005. By using a high-quality lens to focus the light from the probe monochromator onto the sample (see Figure 2) a spot size of about 100 jun can be achieved. By mounting the sample on an x y stage it is possible to perform topographical scans with a spatial resolution of 100 nm. Growth or Process-Induced Strain or...

Gene R Sparrow

Advantages and Disadvantages Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS) is one of the most powerful and practical methods of surface analysis available. However, it is underutilized due to a lack of understanding about its application and capabilities. This stems from its history, the limited number of high-performance instruments manufactured, and the small number of experienced surface sciendsts who have actually used ISS in extensive applications. Ironically, it is one of the easiest and most...

Emv

Absorbante 419 Absorber 230 Absorption 184 coefficient 202 edge 228, 231 index 140 spectroscopy 135 Accelerating voltage 146 Accidental channeling 689 Accuracy of Electron Probe Adsorbates 18, 225, 247, 442 Adsorption 736 geometry 451 isotherm 738 site 451 AED 240 136, 161 signals 137 spectroscopies 144 total 186, 187 Analyzing crystals 340 Angle-integrated spectra 303 Angular Distribution Auger Microscopy 244 Anharmonic vibrations 235 Annular Dark-Field Imaging 167 Antiferromagnetism 249...

Raymond G Teller

Since the recognition in 1936 of the wave nature of neutrons and the subsequent demonstration of the diffraction of neutrons by a crystalline material, the development of neutron diffraction as a useful analytical tool has been inevitable. The initial growth period of this field was slow due to the unavailability of neutron sources nuclear reactors and the low neutron flux available at existing reactors. Within the last decade, however, increases in the number and type of neutron sources,...

Contributors

Antonio BP Research International Cleveland, OH IBM Almaden Research Center San Jose, CA Scott Baumann Charles Evans amp Associates Redwood City, CA Christopher H. Becker SRI International Menlo Park, CA Albert J. Bevolo Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University Ames, IA AT amp T Bell Laboratories Allentown, PA Filippo Radicati di Brozolo Charles Evans amp Associates Redwood City, CA IBM Almaden Research Center San Jose, CA Daniele Cherniak Rennsselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY...