Zearalenone (Figure 3) is a metabolite of the mould F. graminearum also called by its perfect name Gib-berella zeae. Zearalenone is found in barley, wheat and corn and causes hyperoestrogenism in swine, resulting in infertility and spontaneous abortions. It sometimes co-occurs with deoxynivalenol. Zeara-lenone can be extracted from grain with chloroform and cleaned up using a silica gel column, followed by defatting by partitioning between hexane and acetonitrile. For TLC the samples and standards are dissolved in benzene and spotted on a silica gel and developed with ethanol-chloroform (5 : 95 v/v) or acetic acid-benzene (5 : 95 v/v). Under 254 nm ultraviolet light, zearalenone appears as a greenish-blue fluorescent spot at RF = 0.5. If the plate is sprayed with an aluminium chloride solution and heated for 5 min at 130°C, zearalenone will appear under 365 nm ultraviolet light as a blue fluorescent spot.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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