Water Breakthrough

The water-breakthrough test is used for hydrophobic membranes. It is similar to bubble point as this test also give information about the largest pore of the filter membrane. In this test, the minimum pressure required to permeate water from a filter membrane is measured. The water-breakthrough number is dependent on pre-wetting, temperature and pore size of the filter medium. Water is first permeated from the largest pore. This also ascertains filter usability as an aqueous barrier.

Figure 2 (See Colour Plate 49). Pall Ultipor® VF™ Grade DV50 virus filters for high protein-transmissive virus filtration. (Photo courtesy of Pall Corporation, East Hills, NY.)

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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