Variations of Countercurrent Chromatography

The standard CCC technique described above may be modified so that it is suitable for a particular type of separation. Many of these modified CCC schemes have their counterpart in LC, utilizing a solid support matrix. Table 1 summarizes the relationship between a variety of CCC techniques and their counterparts in LC.

Table 1 Variations of CCC with their counterparts in LC with solid support matrix



Counterpartin LC

Normal mode

Organic phase mobile

Normal-phase LC

Reversed mode

Aqueous phase mobile

Reversed-phase LC

Dual mode

Both phases mobile

Moving-bed LC


Ion exchanger in SPa

Ion LC

Affinity CCC

Affinity ligand in SP

Affinity LC

pH-Zone-refining CCC

Retainer in SP; eluter in MPb

Displacement LC

Chiral CCC

Chiral selector in SP

Chiral LC

aSP, stationary phase. bMP, mobile phase.

aSP, stationary phase. bMP, mobile phase.

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