U FcsAc

where the interparticle porosity is the interparticle volume of a packed column per unit area. For an open-tubular column this term is equal to l.

Since the flow rate at column temperature (Fc) is measured at the outlet, in GC the carrier gas velocity at column outlet (uo) is frequently employed. Correcting this term for gas compressibility gives the average linear carrier gas velocity (u) = uo j.

In practice, the average linear carrier gas velocity is calculated by dividing the column length (L) by the retention time (tM) of an unretained peak, i.e. one that moves at the same velocity as the mobile phase: u"L/tM

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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