Symbols

b bottoms flow rate of component i B molar bottoms flow rate d distillate flow rate of component i D molar distillate flow rate Em Murphree tray efficiency

EMP

point efficiency

Eo

overall tray efficiency

f o

fugacity of component i in the liquid phase

f V

standard-state fugacity of component at the

temperature of the system

f 0

fugacity of component i in the vapour phase

F

molar feed flow rate

H

molar enthalpy

K

equilibrium constant for component i

L

molar flow of liquid

Nmin min

minimum number of stages

N

number of stages

comp

number of components

P

system pressure

pSAT

saturated vapour pressure of component i at

the system temperature

q

feed condition

Q

heat duty

R

reflux ratio

r

recovery

R

minimum reflux ratio

T

temperature

U

vapour velocity

V

molar flow of vapour

xi

mole fraction of i in the liquid phase

yi

mole fraction of i in the vapour phase

y*

mole fraction of vapour that would be in equi-

librium with liquid leaving stage j

y*local

mole fraction of vapour that would be in eq-

uilibrium with the local concentration on stage j

Zi

feed composition of component i

«ij

relative volatility between components i and j

P

density

4L

liquid-phase fugacity coefficient for com-

ponent i ponent i vapour-phase fugacity coefficient for component i yi activity coefficient for component i

See Colour Plate 5.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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