Summary

In summary, the hydrophobic surface state must be considered both with regard to the particle surface and with regard to the adjacent interfacial water

Figure 4 Schematic picture of cavitation phenomena during approach of hydrophobic sphere and hydrophobic plane in water. (A) Layers of lower medium density (adsorbed gas molecules), (B) nanobubbles formation, (C) bridging cavity formation, and (D) multiple bridging cavities, leading to film rupture and attachment.

Figure 4 Schematic picture of cavitation phenomena during approach of hydrophobic sphere and hydrophobic plane in water. (A) Layers of lower medium density (adsorbed gas molecules), (B) nanobubbles formation, (C) bridging cavity formation, and (D) multiple bridging cavities, leading to film rupture and attachment.

region. The particle surface must be of low polarity which is determined by elemental composition and/or structural bonding considerations. Water film instability at a hydrophobic surface arises not only from a disrupted interfacial water structure but also from a cavitation phenomenon which involves coalescence of nanobubbles in the interfacial water region. Such is the nature of the hydrophobic surface state.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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