Summary

Mineral-solution equilibria, surfactant-solution chemistry, as well as interactions among dissolved species, surfactant and solids, can have a drastic effect on surfactant adsorption and flotation separation of sparing soluble minerals. Studies on the effects of water chemistry on adsorption of surfactant on phosphate minerals such as apatite and francolite and associated minerals such as calcite and dolomite show that these interactions have marked effects on the reagent adsorption as well as flotation. Surfactant can exist in different forms in solution depending on the solution pH and the surfactant concentration. Minerals can undergo dissolution, with the extent of

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Initial alizarin red S concentration (106 x kmol rrf3)

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Initial alizarin red S concentration (106 x kmol rrf3)

Figure 12 Flotation of calcite (triangles) and apatite (circles) from their mixture (1 : 1) at pH 10.5 as a function of Alizarin red S concentration. Alizarin red S conditioning time = 1 min; K oleate = 9 x 10 ~5 kmol mT3; KCl = 3 x 10kmol mT3; pH = 10.5 $ 0.2. (From Fu E and Somasundaran P (1986) International Journal ofMineral Processing 18: 287, with permission from Elsevier Science.)

dissolution depending upon solution conditions such as pH, ionic strength and concentration of constituent ions. The dissolved mineral species can further interact with mineral solids, leading to surface conversion of the minerals. They can also interact with surfactant, leading to surface and bulk precipitation. All these processes can significantly affect the adsorption of surfactant on minerals. A full understanding of the various interactions in surfactant-solid-solution system is essential for developing efficient separation schemes. Indeed, desired selectivity can be achieved by using appropriate additives to control dissolved species or modifying collector adsorption and by optimizing solution conditions as well as the kinetics involved.

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Solar Panel Basics

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