In general, the solvent systems used in paper chromatography were based on mixtures of one or more organic solvents with water. Acids (HCl, acetic, etc.) or bases (aqueous ammonia) were added to control the ionization of the analytes. Typical solvent mixtures for amino acids, for example, might be composed of butan-1-ol, acetic acid and water; butan 1-ol, pyridine and water or phenol and water. For sugars, solvents based on ethyl acetate, pyridine and water; ethyl acetate, propan-1-ol and water or ethyl acetate, acetic acid and water were popular. For inorganic ions, solvent systems such as acetone, concentrated HCl and water; pyridine and water or butan-1-ol and HCl mixtures were suitable. In the case of some of these solvents the mixtures suggested separated on standing into two phases. In such circumstances it was customary to separate the two phases and use the aqueous layer to saturate the atmosphere in the developing tank and the organic layer as the eluent for chromatography.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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