SEC with Polar Solvents

Polar polymers normally require the use of polar solvents such as dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO), N-methylpyrrolydine (NMP) or dimethylacetamide (DMAC). Work with these solvents is carried out at raised temperatures (e.g. 80°C), to reduce the viscosity, and it is normal practice to add salts to try and suppress interactions other than SEC. SEC of polyesters and polyamides can be carried out at ambient temperature using fluorinated alcohols but the solvents are excessively expensive and of questionable toxicity.

Although the standard polystyrene-based columns are normally used for SEC with polar solvents, the polystyrene calibrants may not be applicable and the use of alternative calibrant polymers such as polyethyleneglycol/polyethyleneoxide or polymethyl-methacrylate is common.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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