Sample Preparation

Careful sample preparation is a prerequisite of a successful analysis. Most proteins are soluble and are easily recovered in the sample preparation solution, which includes urea, CHAPS, a reductant and, optionally, protease inhibitors. Recovery of the proteins that are insoluble in this solution is often a problem. A centrifugation step is necessary for removal of nondissolved material. The addition of thiourea and of a noncharged reducing agent, such as tributyl phosphine, to the sample buffer increases protein solubility during IEF. It would appear that hydropho-bic interactions between proteins and the acrylamide gel of the IPG strips are responsible for protein losses during IEF. Nucleic acids present in the sample can also seriously affect spot resolution. Enzymatic digestion with an endonuclease prior to sample application is usually recommended.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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