Sample Application

Sample application is one of the most critical steps in PPC. The sample can be applied either offline or online. In offline mode the mobile phase comes into contact with the stationary phase only when sample application is complete; the separation is always started with a dry layer. This mode of application can be used for all PPC methods, irrespective of the driving force (capillary action or forced flow). In online application the sample is dissolved and the stationary phase is always wetted with a solvent - generally it is equilibrated with the starting composition of the mobile phase. This application mode is only possible when forced-flow techniques are used.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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