The retention ratio R is defined as the average velocity of a retained sample component divided by the average velocity of the carrier liquid which is equal to the average velocity of an unretained sample component:


Figure 2 Schematic representation of the general principle and experimental arrangement of field-flow fractionation: (1) pump; (2) injector; (3) separation channel; (4) external field; (5) hydrodynamic flow; (6) detector.

FFF is usually carried out in channels of simple geometry allowing calculation of the rigorous relationship between the retention ratio and the size of the separated particles. If this relationship is difficult to determine, a calibration can be applied. The particle size distribution (PSD) in both cases is determined from the fractogram.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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