Retention of the compounds of interest, be they low-molecular-mass compounds or macromolecules is effected by the appropriate combination of buffer concentration and pH. Typically a pH of 7.0-8.0 would be used to promote binding to the antibody. It is also quite common to add a small percentage of sodium chloride to the buffer. Phosphate-buffered saline is the most common retention buffer quoted. In addition, in some cases, binding to the antibody depends on metal ions. For example, in the case of protein C, binding only occurs in the absence of calcium ions.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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