Residence Time in the Denuder

The efficiency of a diffusion denuder sampler for the removal of gas phase material can be improved by increasing the residence time of the sampled aerosol in the denuder. However, the residence time can only be increased within limits. Since the diffusion denuder reduces the concentration of gas phase semi-volatile organic material, semi-volatile organic material present in the particles passing through the denuder will be in a thermodynamically unstable environment and will tend to outgas SVOC during passage through the denuder. The residence time of the aerosol in the denuder should be short enough to prevent significant loss of particulate phase SVOC to the denuder. Various studies have suggested that the residence time in the denuder should be less than about 2 s. The residence times in the various denuder designs described above are about 1.5, 0.2, 0.2 and 1.4 s for the BOSS (or PC-BOSS), BIG BOSS, IOVPS and IOGAPS denuders, respectively.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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