Recent Advances in Flotation Practice

It appears unnecessary to list all of the minerals processed by flotation, since almost all minerals mined today can be separated effectively by froth flotation. In addition to developments in the three foundation areas of flotation (Figure 1), significant progress has also been made in circuit design. Following the introduction of reverse, bulk and differential flotation, the multifeed circuit, shown in Figure 8 and practised in China for processing copper sulfide, is considered to be one of the most recent advances in this regard. With the multifeed circuit, the improved recovery has been attributed largely to the autogenous carrier (piggyback) effect. The reduced reagent consumption, which creates a starving reagent addition, may have contributed to the improved concentrate grade (i.e. selectivity). In the Climax Mill (USA), the use of the multifeed circuit improved the molybdenite grade from 14 to 34% MoS2 at comparable molybdenite recovery and

Figure 8 Comparison of (A) conventional rougher-cleaner circuit with (B) multifeed circuit. The dotted lines represent a variation of the circuits with recirculating loads. An added advantage with a multifeed circuit includes improved concentrate grade at reduced reagent consumption while maintaining the valuable recoveries.

Figure 8 Comparison of (A) conventional rougher-cleaner circuit with (B) multifeed circuit. The dotted lines represent a variation of the circuits with recirculating loads. An added advantage with a multifeed circuit includes improved concentrate grade at reduced reagent consumption while maintaining the valuable recoveries.

reduced by half collector and frother consumptions. Another recent development is flash flotation which uses a coarse flotation cell (Skim-Air) in a grinding circuit to produce final concentrate from a cyclone underflow stream before further grinding (Figure 9). This approach minimizes overgrinding of valuable material richer in the cyclone underflow than in the feed stream. In addition to increased recovery, an improved throughput for the subsequent unit operations and the high dewatering efficiency of final concentrate are recognized with flash flotation. In tackling the challenge of fine particle flotation, high intensity conditioning has been developed. The improved process performance has been attributed to mechanical surface cleaning of slimes, shear-induced aggregation of target particles and, yet to be confirmed, in situ bubble formation on hydrophobized particles by hydrodynamic cavitation and resultant bubble-particle aggregation. Online pulp potential control assisted by nitrogen as the carrier gas has also been engineered in flotation machines and columns as a means of improving selectivity of sulfide mineral separation.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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