Qt l1 kT

where k is the Boltzmann's constant (J KT1); v is the rms thermal velocity of ions (m s-1); T is the absolute temperature (K).

Smith and McDonald derived an expression for combined diffusion and particle charging. They divided the surface of a particle being charged into three regions: region I, where the electric field of the particle and that within the ESP duct intersect, sweeping ions onto the particle surface; region II, where the radial component of the electric field of the particle dominates; and region III, where the electric field of the particle and duct are in the same direction, sweeping ions away from the particle. Giving the electric field about the particle, Er, as:

where Er is the radial component of electric field (Vm-1); E0 is the external field (Vm-1); r is the radial distance to point of interest (m); 0 is the azimuth angle measured from the z axis (toward the discharge electrode) (rad); ne is the particle charge (C); these researchers produced a combined charging rate equation:

dq dq dq dq

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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