The carbon dioxide pump (2) is a reciprocating plunger- or membrane-type metering pump. It is a high-pressure pump equipped with one or multiple heads. Pumping is only efficient if the carbon dioxide is kept liquid on the suction side and in the pump head. In order to avoid cavitation it is necessary to cool the eluent tank (1), the suction line and the pump head. Since carbon dioxide is somewhat compressible, reliable pumping is difficult to achieve (the real flow rate differs from the nominal flow rate of the pump) and the efficiency of the pump depends on both inlet and outlet pressures and inlet temperature. Thus, it is better not to rely on the pump to provide a constant flow rate. In the example given the pump is used as a pressure source only, the column inlet pressure is regulated by a pressure regulator and the flow rate is regulated through the depressuriz-ation valve (6) at the column outlet. The modifier pump is an ordinary high-pressure liquid metering pump.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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