Principles

Electrophoresis is a very separation technique which involves the separation of charged species (molecules) on the basis of their movement under the influence of an applied electric field. It is widely used by chemists and biochemists in studies related to medical technology, environmental research, food and water analysis, pollution control and forensic investigations. The development and applications of electrophoretic separation methods are an example of the fruitfulness of using physical methods in tackling biological and biochemical problems.

The migration of charged colloidal particles in an electric field was originally given the name cataphor-esis or electrophoresis. Because there has been some diversity of opinion about the definition of a colloid, and thus about the distinction between colloidal and molecular systems, there has also been some differ step Suorescent staining of denaturing gels for detection of nanogram levels of protein. Analytical Biochemistry 239: 223-237.

Sutherland JC (1993) Electronic imaging of electrophoretic gels and blots. In: Chrambach A, Dunn MJ and Radola BJ (eds). Advances in Electrophoresis, Vol. 6, pp. 3-42. Weinheim: VCH.

Unlu M, Morgan ME and Minden JS (1997). Difference gel electrophoresis: A single gel method for detecting changes in protein extracts. Electrophoresis 18: 2071-2077.

Urwin VE and Jackson P (1993) Two-dimensional polyac-rylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labelled with the Suorophore monobromobimane prior to Rrst-dimen-sional isoelectric focusing: Imaging of the Suorescent protein spot patterns using a charge-coupled device. Analytical Biochemistry 209: 57-62.

Wirth P and Ramano A (1995) Staining methods in gel electrophoresis, including the use of multiple detection methods. Journal of Chromatography A 698: 123-143.

ence of opinion as to how widely the term 'electrophoresis' should be used. Some authors prefer the term ionophoresis to describe the movement of relatively small molecules or ions under such conditions.

The 1940s and 1950s witnessed very rapid developments in the applications of methods making use of the migration of particles in an electric field. These applications covered the whole range of particle sizes from the largest protein molecules to small molecules like amino acids, sugars (at high pH) and even simple inorganic ions, using the sample types of procedures and apparatus. Although it is not a form of chromato-graphy, the differences in the rates of migration of the charged particles provide a powerful means of separating biocolloids such as proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids, as well as for the characterization of their components. For these reasons, and also for historical reasons, it is now general practice to use the term 'electrophoresis' to refer to all these procedures. Electrophoresis pertains to the transport of electrically charged particles - ions, colloids, macromolecu-lar ions or particulate matter - in an electric field.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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