Principle of Separation

Separation in FFF is based on the action of effective physical or chemical forces across the separation channel in which the particles are transported due to the flow of a carrier liquid. The field interacts with the particles, separating and concentrating them at the appropriate positions inside the channel. The concentration gradient so formed induces an opposition diffusion flux. When equilibrium is reached, a stable concentration distribution of the particles across the channel is established. Simultaneously, a flow velocity profile is formed across the channel in the longitudinal flow of the carrier liquid. As a result, the particles are transported longitudinally at different velocities depending on the transverse positions of their zones and are thus separated. This principle is shown in Figure 2. The carrier liquid is pumped through the sample injector to the fractionation channel. The detector connected at the end allows the recording of the fractogram.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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