Preparation

Ion exchange membranes can be classified as monopolar or bipolar. In parallel, some intermediate mem

Dorfner K (1972) Ion Exchangers, 3rd edn. Michigan: Ann Arbor Science Publishers.

Dorfner K (ed.) (1991) Ion Exchangers. Berlin: W de G de Gruyter.

Frechet JMJ and Farrall MJ (1977) Chemistry and Properties of Crosslinked Polymers. London: Academic Press.

Helfferich F (1962) Ion Exchange. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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Holliday L (1975) Ionic Polymers. London: Applied Science.

Samuelson O (1963) Ion Exchange Separations in Analytical Chemistry. New York: John Wiley.

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Streat M and Naden D (eds) (1987) Ion Exchange and Sorption Processes in Hydrometallurgy. Critical Reports on Applied Chemistry, vol. 15, ch. 3 and ch. 4. New York: John Wiley.

branes have been categorized as mosaic and amphoteric. The monopolar membranes can be divided into cation exchange membranes and anion exchange membranes. Combination of these membranes results in a bipolar ion exchange membrane.

The properties of any ion exchange membrane are determined by the properties of its polymer matrix and the type and concentration of the fixed ionic moieties. The polymer matrix of ion exchange membranes is usually cross-linked. The degree of cross-linking extensively influences the degree of swelling (water sorption), chemical and mechanical stability and membrane permeability by changing ionic mobility inside the membrane phase. Thus, the proper selection of membrane components, their content and the method of preparation significantly affect the membrane properties and structure. The subsequent chemical modification of the polymer matrix involves the introduction of ionogenic groups, resulting typically in the following fixed sites:

Cation exchange membranes:

Anion exchange membranes:

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