Practical Problems

The Joule's heat generated in an electrophoretic run causes various problems, including changes in the pH of the buffer medium, diffusion and distortion of the zones, and evaporation and convection currents. It should be remembered that these effects may occur simultaneously, which may complicate the results. It is therefore necessary to optimize the temperature for a particular analysis and keep it constant.

In paper electrophoresis there is liable to be variability in the quality of paper from batch to batch, and also perhaps within one sheet. Some papers have adsorptive properties that may affect the elec-trophoretic mobility of the molecules under study. Ionizable groups may produce an electroosmotic effect on the paper, which in turn may distort the migration characteristics of the separating components. The physical and chemical inhomogeneity of the support medium also has a pronounced effect on the migration of substances which in turn affects the results.

The method used for the detection of sample components separated by electrophoresis depends on the type of electrophoresis, the nature of the molecules to be detected, and the purpose of analysis. Some detection methods are listed in Table 1.

Separations using electrophoretic methods may not be adequate for very complex mixtures. Resolutions may be improved substantially by combining elec-trophoresis with some other separation technique. The sample subjected to electrophoresis in one direction while the other separation analysis is carried out in a perpendicular direction (so-called two-dimensional techniques).

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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