Polychlorinated Biphenyls PCBs

MAE of PCBs was reported by Lopez-Avila et al. Onuska and Terri, Chee et al., Pastor et al., Dupont et al. and Kodba and Marsel. Lopez-Avila et al. used hexane-acetone (1:1, v/v) and reported that the average recoveries from typical soil matrices were greater than 70% for the Aroclors 1016 and 1260 and the method precision was better than 7%. Furthermore, there was no degradation of PCBs upon heating of solvent/soil suspensions with microwave energy. Three reference materials and 24 soils from a Superfund site, most of which contained Aroclors, were extracted by MAE and analysed by both GC/ECD and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Because ELISA is very sensitive and its detection range is quite narrow, the hexane-acetone extracts were first diluted with methanol and subsequently with the assay buffer (which contained 50% methanol) to bring the Aroclor concentrations to less than 5 ngmL-1. These data indicate excellent agreement between the certified Soxhlet/GC/ECD data and the MAE-ELISA data (correlation coefficient 0.9986; slope 1.0168) and the MAE-GC/ECD data and the MAE-ELISA data (correlation coefficient 0.9793; slope 1.0468).

Other solvents used successfully to extract PCBs from environmental samples include isooctane, acetone and dichloromethane, and toluene-water.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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