PH Effect

When the sample contains weak electrolytes, the pH of the leading electrolyte (pHL) should be carefully chosen to obtain high separability among the components, since the effective mobilities of weak electrolytes change drastically according to the pH of the solution. This pH effect on the effective mobility is the most important and should be examined first.

Figure 6 shows the simulated and the observed isotachopherograms for a test mixture of pyrophos-phoric (P2O7), triphosphoric (P3O10), tetraphosphoric (P4O12) acids, and 15 nucleotides, AMP, ADP, ATP, CMP, CDP, CTP, GMP, GDP, GTP, IMP, IDP, ITP, UMP, UDP and UTP. The pHL was adjusted to 4.7 with creatinine. The optimum pHL range was rather limited, because CTP may form a mixed zone with

UDP at low pHL and with ATP at the high pHL. Obviously from this example, the pH of the leading electrolyte should be carefully chosen in order to obtain high separability for weak electrolytes. For this purpose, computer simulation of the iso-tachophoretic steady state is useful, when the mobility and dissociation constants are available. In fact, the optimum pHL of the above separation has been determined by simulation.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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