Petroleum Distillation

Petroleum distillation is particularly difficult because of the large number of components of the mixture and large scale of the processes. This type of distillation involves products that are not easily identifiable components. Instead, separation is achieved in terms of pseudo-components, which are generally characterized in terms of their true boiling point ranges (TBP), an average relative molecular mass and an API gravity. TBP data are widely available and are generally presented in form of curves.

There are two main approaches to the design of petroleum distillation columns. The first consists of the solution of mass and energy balances based on empirical correlations, and is basically a calculation by hand. This approach was developed by Packie.

In the second approach, each pseudo-component is characterized for properties (such as vapour pressure and enthalpy) by using homologous-series approaches. Thus, rigorous mass and energy balances can then be applied to determine the separation in terms of the reflux ratio. Several efficient computer programs following this approach have been developed.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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