The characteristic property of ion exchange membranes is their ionic permselectivity related to electrically driven processes and quantified by the following definitions:

and Paem =

-t t where t is the transference number for anions ( — ) and ( + ) cations in free electrolyte or acting as counterions (cation exchange membrane (CEM) and anion exchange membrane (AEM)) in an ion exchange membrane. An ideal permselective membrane should have a P value of 1, and the per-mselectivity is equal to zero when the transference numbers within the membrane are the same as in an electrolyte solution. Usually, transference numbers for practical membranes attain values from 0.8 to 0.98.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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