Patulin

Patulin (Figure 3) is a lactone metabolite of several moulds, including Penicillium expansum, which causes brown rot in apples. Patulin is often found in apple juice, especially juice from fallen apples. Patulin can be extracted from apple juice with ethyl acetate and cleaned up using silica gel column chromatogra-phy. After evaporation, the extract is dissolved in chloroform and spotted on silica gel plates and developed with toluene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (5:4:1 v/v). After drying, the plate is sprayed

Figure 3 Structures of ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, satratoxin H and zearalenone.

with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone-HCl (MBTH) solution and heated for 15 min in an oven at 130°. Under ultraviolet light at 365 nm, patulin (Rf = 0.5) appears as a yellow-brown fluorescent spot. The amount of patulin in the sample can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescence of the standard and sample spots. Other TLC developers, such as hexane-anhydrous ether (1 : 3 v/v), chloroform-methanol (95 : 5 v/v), and chloroform-acetone (9 : 1 v/v) can be used to confirm the identity of the patulin. After development, plates are sprayed with MBTH to reveal the patulin.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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