Paint Media

Artists have traditionally used a diverse range of materials as binding media for their pigments: natural oils, gums and proteinaceous materials such as egg, milk and collagen glues have all been incorporated into paint layers.

Oil painting was popular in northern Europe from before the 13th century and analytical evidence suggests that linseed oil was favoured, whilst in Italy, where oil painting was introduced in the 15th century, walnut oil was initially preferred. The oils most widely used in western European art are linseed, walnut and poppy, though the use of other oils, such as tung and safflower, has become more common in recent years.

Plant gums are commonly found as adhesives and binders. Gum arabic is primarily used as a painting medium, but others such as gum tragacanth (a medium for painting on linen) and cherry gum (which results in an enamel-like effect when mixed with egg or casein emulsions) are used less frequently. There is documentary evidence to suggest that gums have been employed as binding media and sizing materials for centuries: gum was used as a replacement for sun-dried oil as early as the 12th century.

Proteinaceous media include gelatine, milk and egg proteins. Animals and fish collagen glues are widely used as strong adhesives for wood, binders in the preparation of grounds, size for canvas, and pigment binders in decorative paints. Casein (a mixture of related phosphoproteins found in milk products), egg albumin (glair) and egg yolk (tempera) have traditionally found uses as pigment binders, temporary varnishes and sealant over primers or grounds: in addition, casein provides one of the strongest natural adhesives known, much used by joiners and cabinet makers in the past.

The choice of binding medium is determined by a number of factors, predominantly the nature of the pigments being used, coupled with the effect desired by the artist, plus historical factors like location and the period of the piece. A variety of materials have enjoyed periodic popularity due to artistic trends and scientific progress.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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