New rigorous methods for fractionation modelling may no longer be forthcoming and most enhancements will be driven by greater acceptance of nonequilibrium methods, and to other methods by their application to more complex fractionators and difficult systems of components. Teaching concepts of equations and solution may be limited to what is necessary to understand a programme's options, diagnostics and why a programme acts in a certain manner. There should be greater emphasis on knowledge of the physical reality of a column and where the actual process is sensitive, to help set up a problem. Software improvements are needed more in analysis and troubleshooting thought processes, tools and reports. Some of these tools may be a return to use of pre-computer tools such as x-y, McCabe-Thiele, and Hengstebeck diagrams and shortcut methods. While computers continue to become more common, faster and easier to use, they should never be a substitute for sound engineering experience and judgement.

Figure 3 Model of a nonequilibrium separation and mass transfer.

See also: II/Distillation: Historical Development; Theory of Distillation; Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium: Correlation and

Prediction; Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium: Theory.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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