Organotin and Organomercury Compounds

Methods reported in the literature for the determination of organotin compounds in soils use extraction with organic solvents in the presence of complexing agent, or leaching with acetic or hydrochloric acid assisted by sonication or some sort of shaking.

Open-vessel MAE was recommended to accelerate the leaching with 50% acetic acid aqueous solution, and the data showed that a 3-min irradiation at 60 W was sufficient to recover tributyl tin from certified reference sediments. Ethanoic acid (0.5 m in methanol) was also reported. When dealing with biological matrices (e.g., tuna tissue, mussel tissue), solubilization with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) for a 3 min at 90°C, 115°C, and 130°C in a closed vessel was demonstrated to be as efficient as the hot-plate procedure. Schmitt et al. reported on the integration of the solubilization step with the derivat-ization/extraction step by using 11m acetic acid for solubilizationm and NaBEt4 for derivatization using an open vessel MAE system.

Organomercury compounds can be extracted from sediments with 6 m hydrochloric acid at 120°C for 10 min in closed vessel or 2 m nitric acid and 2 m hydrochloric acid after 3 min irradiation at 60 W in open vessel. Pure acetic acid and 1 m sulfuric acid could only extract 85% and 55%, respectively. Microwave-assisted digestion of the biological tissue with 25% TMAH for 2-4 min at 40-60 W gave quantitative recovery of both organomercury and inorganic mercury.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

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