Organic Ion Exchangers

form, respectively. Those with fixed base groups and exchangeable anions (OH~ or Cl") are anion exchangers in the OH form and Cl form, respectively.

In the accepted terminology, the three-dimensional network with the fixed groups is called the matrix or framework and exchangeable ions of opposite sign, which neutralize the fixed ionic groups, are the counter-ions that are responsible for the ion exchange process.

Co-ions are mobile ions having the same sign as the fixed charges of the matrix. In fact, organic ion exchangers are crosslinked polyelectrolytes. Thus, a cation exchanger is an anionic polyelectrolyte while an anion exchanger can be regarded as a cationic poly-electrolyte.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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