Operating Protocols Equipment Monitoring and Control

Affinity separations are carried out using equipment that is suitable for use in other adsorption and chromatographic procedures. In almost all cases this will involve the use of a packed bed of adsorbent, although the benefits of using expanded bed adsorption technology when processing particulate-contain-ing liquids are also rapidly becoming apparent. These affinity procedures are operated in a batch mode with a number of sequential stages during each cycle of operation (adsorption, washing, elution, cleaning, re-equilibration). Reasons for the choice of such methods include the ease of automation and improved quality assurance over strirred tank adsorption procedures. Valves can be employed to ensure that the appropriate process solutions (feedstocks, buffers, eluents, etc.) are pumped on to the bed and that liquid fractions from the bed are diverted to appropriate vessels for collection. Typically these actions are under the control of an automated system which either follows a pre-programmed time sequence, or responds interactively to the features of the separation by exploiting information being received from sensors and monitors installed in the process.

In order to run an affinity separation optimally, it is necessary to be able to monitor the success of the separation as it is proceeding. Ideally, information is required on the levels of key components that accurately reflect the state of the separation. In affinity separations such components will include the adsorbate itself, the level of total protein and possibly the levels of key contaminants. The on-going development of biosensors able to provide continuous measurement of particular compounds will be of crucial importance in this area. Meanwhile, use is beginning to be made of techniques such as flow injection analysis, surface plasmon resonance sensors and rapid liquid chromatographic monitoring. These techniques yield much more specific information than is available from traditional flow measurement techniques such as spectroscopy (mainly used to measure the general level of protein) and pH and conductivity measurements whose contribution is restricted to monitoring the physical properties of the liquids flowing into and out of the column. The ability to be able to monitor online the levels of particular compounds enables optimization of the duration of the adsorption stage of the separation, terminating it when the level of the target compound begins to break through the bed without being captured. Such monitoring can also participate in the location of the target in the flow from the bed during elution.

Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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