Ochratoxin A

Ochratoxin A (OA) causes nephropathy and im-munosuppression in several animal species, and is carcinogenic in experimental animals. OA has been linked to the human disease Balkan endemic

Table 1 Moulds and mycotoxins of worldwide importance

Mould species

Mycotoxins produced

Main sources

Aspergillus parasiticus

Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2

Edible nuts, oilseeds and cereals

A. flavus

Aflatoxins B1, B2


T-2 toxin

Wheat and Maize

F. graminearum


(or nivalenol in some areas)

Wheat and Maize


F. moniliforme

Fumonisin B1


Penicillium verrucosum and

A. ochraceus

Ochratoxin A

Wheat, barley, coffee beans, vine fruits

Figure 1 Mycotoxins of worldwide importance.

nephropathy, a fatal, chronic renal disease occurring in limited areas of Bulgaria, the former Yugoslavia and Romania. It has been suggested that pork products are significant human dietary sources of OA.

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Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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