Ochratoxin A

Ochratoxin A (OA) causes nephropathy and im-munosuppression in several animal species, and is carcinogenic in experimental animals. OA has been linked to the human disease Balkan endemic

Table 1 Moulds and mycotoxins of worldwide importance

Mould species

Mycotoxins produced

Main sources

Aspergillus parasiticus

Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2

Edible nuts, oilseeds and cereals

A. flavus

Aflatoxins B1, B2

Fusariumsporotrichioides

T-2 toxin

Wheat and Maize

F. graminearum

Deoxynivalenol

(or nivalenol in some areas)

Wheat and Maize

zearalenone

F. moniliforme

Fumonisin B1

Maize

Penicillium verrucosum and

A. ochraceus

Ochratoxin A

Wheat, barley, coffee beans, vine fruits

Figure 1 Mycotoxins of worldwide importance.

nephropathy, a fatal, chronic renal disease occurring in limited areas of Bulgaria, the former Yugoslavia and Romania. It has been suggested that pork products are significant human dietary sources of OA.

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